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Articles by S Murakami
Total Records ( 5 ) for S Murakami
  M Shimbo , S Tomioka , M Sasaki , T Shima , N Suzuki , S Murakami , H Nakatsu and J. Shimazaki
  Objective

Detection of prostate cancer needs a biopsy of the prostate. Suspecting cancer from an increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has a high negative rate at an initial prostate biopsy. Cases with negative initial biopsy may be the candidates of subsequent biopsy. For lowering unnecessary repeat biopsy, the use of predictive factors before a repeat biopsy is applied for indication.

Methods

Seventy-seven cases with negative initial prostate biopsy received a repeat biopsy and factors for the detection of cancer were examined.

Results

PSA doubling time distinguished a part of cancer cases. Its sensitivity of 30, 50 and 70 months was 36.6%, 30.4% and 10%, respectively. Cancer case did not show PSA doubling time of >100 months in general. Values of PSA transition zone density, %Free/total PSA and PSA velocity were similar between cancer and no cancer cases.

Conclusions

PSA doubling time was one of the predictive factors for the detection of prostate cancer and was valuable for avoiding unnecessary repeat biopsy in some cases.

  N Suzuki , M Shimbo , Y Amiya , S Tomioka , T Shima , S Murakami , H Nakatsu , S Oota and J. Shimazaki
  Objective

Management of lymph nodes in radiotherapy for prostate cancer is an issue for curative intent. To find the influence of lymph nodes, patients with T1–T3 prostate cancer and surgically confirmed negative nodes were treated with radiotherapy.

Methods

After lymphadenectomy, 118 patients received photon beam radiotherapy with 66 Gy to the prostate. No adjuvant treatment was performed until biochemical failure. After failure, hormone therapy was administered. Follow-up period was 57 months (mean).

Results

Biochemical failure occurred in 47 patients. Few failures were observed in patients with low (24%) and intermediate risks (14%). In contrast, 64% of high-risk patients experienced failure, 97% of whom showed until 36 months. Most patients with failure responded well to hormone therapy. After 15 months (mean), a second biochemical failure occurred in 21% of patients who had the first failure, most of them were high risk. Factors involving failure were high initial and nadir prostate-specific antigen, advanced stage, short prostate-specific antigen-doubling time and duration between radiation and first failure. Failure showed an insufficient reduction in prostate-specific antigen after radiotherapy. Factor for second failure was prostate-specific antigen-doubling time at first failure.

Conclusions

Half of high-risk patients experienced biochemical failure, indicating one of the causes involves factors other than lymph nodes. Low-, intermediate- and the other half of high-risk patients did not need to take immediate hormone therapy after radiotherapy. After failure, delayed hormone therapy was effective. Prostate-specific antigen parameters were predictive factors for further outcome.

  H Mukai , T Takashima , Y Hozumi , T Watanabe , S Murakami , N Masuda , S Mitsuyama , T Ohmura , T Yajima and Y. Ohashi
 

This randomized controlled trial will compare oral 5-fluorouracil derivatives, TS-1, with intravenous standard chemotherapy such as taxanes in women with metastatic or recurrent breast cancer. Patients with hormone-resistant breast cancer are assigned to either TS-1 (40–60 mg twice daily for 28 consecutive days, followed by a 14-day rest period) or standard chemotherapy (docetaxel 60–75 mg/m2 at 3- or 4-week intervals, paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 at 3- or 4-week intervals or paclitaxel 80–100 mg/m2 weekly, followed by a 1-week rest period). Treatment will be repeated until tumor progression or ≥4 courses for TS-1 and ≥6 courses for taxanes. The primary endpoint is overall survival. Secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, time to treatment failure, adverse events, health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness. A threshold hazard ratio of 1.333 will be used to determine whether overall survival in the TS-1 group is equivalent (not inferior) to that in the taxane group. The target number of registered patients is 600.

  A Kishimoto Okada , S Murakami , Y Ito , N Horii , H Furukawa , J Takagi and K. Iwasaki
 

Cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS) and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) of vitrified specimens are gradually gaining popularity. However, similar to the conventional methods, these techniques tend to produce different images of the same sample. In CEMOVIS, the mechanical stress caused by sectioning may cause inaccuracies smaller than those caused by crevasses. Therefore, we examined Escherichia coli cells by using CEMOVIS and cryo-ET to determine the differences in the computed sizes of the envelope layers, which are smaller than crevasses. We found that the width of the periplasmic space in vitreous sections and tomograms was 12 and 14 nm, respectively; furthermore, while the distance between the outer membrane (OM) and the peptidoglycan (PG) layer was almost equal (11 nm) in the two techniques, that between the plasma membrane (PM) and PG was clearly different. Thus, the observed size difference can be mainly attributed to the PM–PG distance. Since our data were obtained from images acquired using the same microscope in the same conditions, the size differences cannot be attributed to microscope-related factors. One possible factor is the angle of the cutting plane against the long axis of the cell body in CEMOVIS. However, the same PG–OM distance in both methods may exclude the variations caused by this factor. Furthermore, the mechanical stress caused by vitreous sectioning or high-pressure freezing may result in shrinkage. If this shrinkage is responsible for the nanometre-scale deformation in CEMOVIS, this factor will have to be considered in determining the molecular resolution obtained by CEMOVIS.

 
 
 
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