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Articles by S Martin
Total Records ( 2 ) for S Martin
  P Maurage , S Campanella , P Philippot , I Charest , S Martin and P. de Timary

Aims: Emotional facial expression (EFE) decoding impairment has been repeatedly reported in alcoholism (e.g. Philippot et al., 1999). Nevertheless, several questions are still under debate concerning this alteration, notably its generalization to other emotional stimuli and its variation according to the emotional valence of stimuli. Methods: Eighteen recently detoxified alcoholic subjects and 18 matched controls performed a decoding test consisting in emotional intensity ratings on various stimuli (faces, voices, body postures and written scenarios) depicting different emotions (anger, fear, happiness, neutral, sadness). Perceived threat and difficulty were also assessed for each stimulus. Results: Alcoholic individuals had a preserved decoding performance for happiness stimuli, but alcoholism was associated with an underestimation of sadness and fear, and with a general overestimation of anger. More importantly, these decoding impairments were observed for faces, voices and postures but not for written scenarios. Conclusions: We observed for the first time a generalized emotional decoding impairment in alcoholism, as this impairment is present not only for faces but also for other visual (i.e. body postures) and auditory stimuli. Moreover, we report that this alteration (1) is mainly indexed by an overestimation of anger and (2) cannot be explained by an ‘affect labelling’ impairment, as the semantic comprehension of written emotional scenarios is preserved. Fundamental and clinical implications are discussed.

  S Gabardi , S. S Waikar , S Martin , K Roberts , J Chen , L Borgi , H Sheashaa , C Dyer , S. K Malek , S. G Tullius , N Vadivel , M Grafals , R Abdi , N Najafian , E Milford and A. Chandraker

Background and objectives: Nearly 30% of renal transplant recipients develops BK viremia, a prerequisite for BK nephropathy. Case reports have evaluated treatment options for BK virus, but no controlled studies have assessed prophylactic therapies. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were studied for prevention of BK viremia after renal transplantation.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This retrospective analysis evaluated adult renal transplant recipients with at least one BK viral load (blood) between 90 and 400 days after transplantation. Six to 12 months of co-trimoxazole was used for Pneumocystis prophylaxis. In sulfa-allergic/-intolerant patients, 6 to 12 months of atovaquone with 1 month of a fluoroquinolone was used. Fluoroquinolones can inhibit BK DNA topoisomerase. The two groups studied were those that received 30 days of levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin after transplantation and those that did not. The primary endpoint was BK viremia rates at 1 year. Of note, of the 160 patients not receiving fluoroquinolone prophylaxis, 40 received a fluoroquinolone for treatment of a bacterial infection within 3 months after transplantation. Subgroup analysis evaluating these 40 patients against the 120 who had no exposure to fluoroquinolones was completed.

Results: A 1-month fluoroquinolone course after transplantation was associated with significantly lower rates of BK viremia at 1 year compared with those with no fluoroquinolone. In the subgroup analysis, exposure to fluoroquinolone for treatment of bacterial infections within 3 months after transplantation was associated with significantly lower 1-year rates of BK viremia.

Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates that fluoroquinolones are effective at preventing BK viremia after renal transplantation.

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