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Articles by S Lu
Total Records ( 5 ) for S Lu
  S Lu and S. Han

The aim of this research was to investigate the potential impacts of task demand and stimulus salience on the stimulus-driven attentional capture effect. The participants performed an inefficient visual search task while an irrelevant luminance singleton was present. In Experiment 1, the task demand was manipulated while the stimulus salience of the irrelevant singleton was fixed. With the same salient singleton, the attentional capture effect was observed in the low-difficulty condition but disappeared in the high-difficulty condition. In Experiment 2, the stimulus salience was manipulated while the task demand was fixed. With the same task, the highly salient singleton captured attention, whereas the relatively lowly salient singleton could not. In Experiment 3, both task demand and stimulus salience were manipulated simultaneously. The stimulus-driven attentional capture effect by the irrelevant singleton increased not only as the task demand decreased but also as the stimulus salience increased. The present study might provide a way to reconcile conflicting findings in the attentional capture literature; the underlying neural mechanism is discussed.

  S. K Kjaer , K Sigurdsson , O. E Iversen , M Hernandez Avila , C. M Wheeler , G Perez , D. R Brown , L. A Koutsky , E. H Tay , P Garcia , K. A Ault , S. M Garland , S Leodolter , S. E Olsson , G. W.K Tang , D. G Ferris , J Paavonen , M Lehtinen , M Steben , F. X Bosch , J Dillner , E. A Joura , S Majewski , N Munoz , E. R Myers , L. L Villa , F. J Taddeo , C Roberts , A Tadesse , J Bryan , R Maansson , S Lu , S Vuocolo , T. M Hesley , A Saah , E Barr and R. M. Haupt

Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to provide protection from HPV 6/11/16/18–related cervical, vaginal, and vulvar disease through 3 years. We provide an update on the efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical, vaginal, and vulvar lesions based on end-of-study data from three clinical trials. Additionally, we stratify vaccine efficacy by several baseline characteristics, including age, smoking status, and Papanicolaou (Pap) test results. A total of 18,174 females ages 16 to 26 years were randomized and allocated into one of three clinical trials (protocols 007, 013, and 015). Vaccine or placebo was given at baseline, month 2, and month 6. Pap testing was conducted at regular intervals. Cervical and anogenital swabs were collected for HPV DNA testing. Examination for the presence of vulvar and vaginal lesions was also done. Endpoints included high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal lesions (CIN 2/3, VIN 2/3, or VaIN 2/3). Mean follow-up time was 42 months post dose 1. Vaccine efficacy against HPV 6/11/16/18–related high-grade cervical lesions in the per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations was 98.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 93.3-99.8] and 51.5% (95% CI, 40.6-60.6), respectively. Vaccine efficacy against HPV 6/11/16/18–related high-grade vulvar and vaginal lesions in the per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations was 100.0% (95% CI, 82.6-100.0) and 79.0% (95% CI, 56.4-91.0), respectively. Efficacy in the intention-to-treat population tended to be lower in older women, women with more partners, and women with abnormal Pap test results. The efficacy of quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical and external anogenital neoplasia remains high through 42 months post vaccination.

  Temple The MGC Project Team , D. S Gerhard , R Rasooly , E. A Feingold , P. J Good , C Robinson , A Mandich , J. G Derge , J Lewis , D Shoaf , F. S Collins , W Jang , L Wagner , C. M Shenmen , L Misquitta , C. F Schaefer , K. H Buetow , T. I Bonner , L Yankie , M Ward , L Phan , A Astashyn , G Brown , C Farrell , J Hart , M Landrum , B. L Maidak , M Murphy , T Murphy , B Rajput , L Riddick , D Webb , J Weber , W Wu , K. D Pruitt , D Maglott , A Siepel , B Brejova , M Diekhans , R Harte , R Baertsch , J Kent , D Haussler , M Brent , L Langton , C. L.G Comstock , M Stevens , C Wei , M. J van Baren , K Salehi Ashtiani , R. R Murray , L Ghamsari , E Mello , C Lin , C Pennacchio , K Schreiber , N Shapiro , A Marsh , E Pardes , T Moore , A Lebeau , M Muratet , B Simmons , D Kloske , S Sieja , J Hudson , P Sethupathy , M Brownstein , N Bhat , J Lazar , H Jacob , C. E Gruber , M. R Smith , J McPherson , A. M Garcia , P. H Gunaratne , J Wu , D Muzny , R. A Gibbs , A. C Young , G. G Bouffard , R. W Blakesley , J Mullikin , E. D Green , M. C Dickson , A. C Rodriguez , J Grimwood , J Schmutz , R. M Myers , M Hirst , T Zeng , K Tse , M Moksa , M Deng , K Ma , D Mah , J Pang , G Taylor , E Chuah , A Deng , K Fichter , A Go , S Lee , J Wang , M Griffith , R Morin , R. A Moore , M Mayo , S Munro , S Wagner , S. J.M Jones , R. A Holt , M. A Marra , S Lu , S Yang , J Hartigan , M Graf , R Wagner , S Letovksy , J. C Pulido , K Robison , D Esposito , J Hartley , V. E Wall , R. F Hopkins , O Ohara and S. Wiemann

Since its start, the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) has sought to provide at least one full-protein-coding sequence cDNA clone for every human and mouse gene with a RefSeq transcript, and at least 6200 rat genes. The MGC cloning effort initially relied on random expressed sequence tag screening of cDNA libraries. Here, we summarize our recent progress using directed RT-PCR cloning and DNA synthesis. The MGC now contains clones with the entire protein-coding sequence for 92% of human and 89% of mouse genes with curated RefSeq (NM-accession) transcripts, and for 97% of human and 96% of mouse genes with curated RefSeq transcripts that have one or more PubMed publications, in addition to clones for more than 6300 rat genes. These high-quality MGC clones and their sequences are accessible without restriction to researchers worldwide.

  S Lu , Y. M Xie , X Li , J Luo , X. Q Shi , X Hong , Y. H Pan and X. Ma

TH2B, an important testis histone, plays a key role in remodeling chromatin structure during spermatogenesis. We present a detailed study of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone TH2B from different developmental stages of sperm cells, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, enzymatic Glu-c digestions of peptides, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and LC–MS/MS analysis. The results showed modification patterns of the intact histone TH2B during spermatogenesis. Acetylated TH2B was most abundant in spermatogonia (28.9%) when compared with the spermatocytes (8.3%) and round spermatids (11.2%). Several new PTMs of TH2B were identified. In spermatogonia, spermatocytes and round spermatids, T116 and K117, were modified by phosphorylation and methylation, respectively, forming a novel ‘phospho switch’ site. The identified modification patterns of histone TH2B in spermatogenic cells provides a basis for future studies on histone coding and epigenetic regulation during spermatogenesis.

  J Ackerman , R Sharma , J Hitchcock , T Hayashi , Y Nagai , S Li , S Lu , J Miret , K Tang , F Spence and J. Aubrecht

We have developed the bioluminescent Salmonella reverse mutation assay as a tool for detecting mutagenicity applicable for high-throughput screening of new chemicals. In this study, we report the inter-laboratory evaluation of the assay using 10 model chemicals in five independent laboratories located in the USA (Groton, CT; Cambridge, MA and La Jolla, CA), Europe (Sandwich, Kent, UK) and Asia (Nagoya, Japan). The studies were performed in blinded fashion in all sites except for Groton and Cambridge laboratories. The chemicals were tested in at least three independent experiments using strains TA98-lux and TA100-lux in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. The results were statistically evaluated and compared to published results. Seven of the 10 compounds were positive in either TA98-lux and/or TA100-lux in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. The positive compound set included: nitrofurazone, 3-3'-dimethoxybenzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, 1,4-benzoquinone dioxime, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline and busulfan. The remaining three compounds, namely, anthracene, crystal violet and benzyl chloride were negative in both Salmonella strains. Final results for individual compounds yielded 100% agreement among the laboratories and published data. Detailed comparison of all 40 individual test conditions yielded 93% (37 of 40) agreement among participating laboratories. We conclude that the bioluminescent Salmonella reverse mutation assay is a robust, accurate and economical higher throughput assay applicable for the mutagenicity screening of chemicals.

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