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Articles by S Loft
Total Records ( 3 ) for S Loft
  L Forchhammer , C Johansson , S Loft , L Moller , R. W. L Godschalk , S. A. S Langie , G. D. D Jones , R. W. L Kwok , A. R Collins , A Azqueta , D. H Phillips , O Sozeri , M Stepnik , J Palus , U Vogel , H Wallin , M. N Routledge , C Handforth , A Allione , G Matullo , J. P Teixeira , S Costa , P Riso , M Porrini and P. Moller
 

The comet assay has become a popular method for the assessment of DNA damage in biomonitoring studies and genetic toxicology. However, few studies have addressed the issue of the noted inter-laboratory variability of DNA damage measured by the comet assay. In this study, 12 laboratories analysed the level of DNA damage in monocyte-derived THP-1 cells by either visual classification or computer-aided image analysis of pre-made slides, coded cryopreserved samples of cells and reference standard cells (calibration curve samples). The reference standard samples were irradiated with ionizing radiation (0–10 Gy) and used to construct a calibration curve to calculate the number of lesions per 106 base pair. All laboratories detected dose–response relationships in the coded samples irradiated with ionizing radiation (1.5–7 Gy), but there were overt differences in the level of DNA damage reported by the different laboratories as evidenced by an inter-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) of 47%. Adjustment of the primary comet assay end points by a calibration curve prepared in each laboratory reduced the CV to 28%, a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05, Levene's test). A large fraction of the inter-laboratory variation originated from differences in image analysis, whereas the intra-laboratory variation was considerably smaller than the variation between laboratories. In summary, adjustment of primary comet assay results by reference standards reduces inter-laboratory variation in the level of DNA damage measured by the alkaline version of the comet assay.

  C Johansson , P Moller , L Forchhammer , S Loft , R. W. L Godschalk , S. A. S Langie , S Lumeij , G. D. D Jones , R. W. L Kwok , A Azqueta , D. H Phillips , O Sozeri , M. N Routledge , A. J Charlton , P Riso , M Porrini , A Allione , G Matullo , J Palus , M Stepnik , A. R Collins and L. Moller
 

The increasing use of single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay) highlights its popularity as a method for detecting DNA damage, including the use of enzymes for assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA. However, comparison of DNA damage levels between laboratories can be difficult due to differences in assay protocols (e.g. lysis conditions, enzyme treatment, the duration of the alkaline treatment and electrophoresis) and in the end points used for reporting results (e.g. %DNA in tail, arbitrary units, tail moment and tail length). One way to facilitate comparisons is to convert primary comet assay end points to number of lesions/106 bp by calibration with ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-laboratory variation in assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA by the comet assay in terms of oxidized purines converted to strand breaks with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG). Coded samples with DNA oxidation damage induced by treatment with different concentrations of photosensitizer (Ro 19-8022) plus light and calibration samples irradiated with ionizing radiation were distributed to the 10 participating laboratories to measure DNA damage using their own comet assay protocols. Nine of 10 laboratories reported the same ranking of the level of damage in the coded samples. The variation in assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA was largely due to differences in protocols. After conversion of the data to lesions/106 bp using laboratory-specific calibration curves, the variation between the laboratories was reduced. The contribution of the concentration of photosensitizer to the variation in net FPG-sensitive sites increased from 49 to 73%, whereas the inter-laboratory variation decreased. The participating laboratories were successful in finding a dose–response of oxidatively damaged DNA in coded samples, but there remains a need to standardize the protocols to enable direct comparisons between laboratories.

  P Riso , D Martini , P Moller , S Loft , G Bonacina , M Moro and M. Porrini
 

Cruciferous vegetables contain compounds with antioxidant properties (e.g. carotenoids, vitamin C and folates) and can alter the activity of xenobiotic metabolism (i.e. isothiocyanates). These constituents may be particularly important for subjects who are exposed to free radicals and genotoxic compounds, including smokers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of broccoli intake on biomarkers of DNA damage and repair. Twenty-seven young healthy smokers consumed a portion of steamed broccoli (250 g/day) or a control diet for 10 days each within a crossover design with a washout period. Blood was collected before and after each period. The level of oxidatively damaged DNA lesions (formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites), resistance to ex vivo H2O2 treatment and repair of oxidised DNA lesions were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also measured mRNA expression levels of repair and defence enzymes: 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X-type motif 1 (NUDT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). After broccoli consumption, the level of oxidised DNA lesions decreased by 41% (95% confidence interval: 10%, 72%) and the resistance to H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks increased by 23% (95% CI: 13%, 34%). Following broccoli intake, a higher protection was observed in subjects with glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1-null genotype. The expression level and activity of repair enzymes was unaltered. In conclusion, broccoli intake was associated with increased protection against H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks and lower levels of oxidised DNA bases in PBMCs from smokers. This protective effect could be related to an overall improved antioxidant status.

 
 
 
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