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Articles by S Levy
Total Records ( 2 ) for S Levy
  A. Y Saadjian , V Gerolami , R Giorgi , L Mercier , J. L Berge Lefranc , F Paganelli , Z Ibrahim , Y By , J. L Gueant , S Levy and R. P. Guieu

High adenosine plasma levels and high expression of adenosine A2A receptors are observed in patients with unexplained syncope and a positive head-up tilt test (HUT). This study aimed to evaluate the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (c.1364 T>C) which is the most commonly found polymorphism in the A2A receptor gene, in patients with unexplained syncope undergoing HUT.

Methods and results

One hundred and five patients with unexplained syncope who underwent HUT were included. Fifty-two had a positive test. Receptor genotype determinations were performed in patients and in 121 healthy subjects. Genotype (TT, CC, TC) was determined from DNA leucocytes. The distribution of the polymorphism showed significant (P < 0.0001) difference when the results of HUT were analysed. Fifty-two per cent of patients with a positive HUT had a CC genotype and 34.6% a TC genotype, whereas 13.2% of the patients with a negative HUT had a CC genotype and 71.7% a TC genotype. Patients with a CC genotype had a higher incidence of spontaneous syncopal episodes.


In patients with unexplained syncope, a significant association between high incidence of syncopal episodes, positive HUT, and the presence of the CC variant in the adenosine A2A receptor gene was elicited.

  J Xing , Y Zhang , K Han , A. H Salem , S. K Sen , C. D Huff , Q Zhou , E. F Kirkness , S Levy , M. A Batzer and L. B. Jorde

Structural variants (SVs) are common in the human genome. Because approximately half of the human genome consists of repetitive, transposable DNA sequences, it is plausible that these elements play an important role in generating SVs in humans. Sequencing of the diploid genome of one individual human (HuRef) affords us the opportunity to assess, for the first time, the impact of mobile elements on SVs in an individual in a thorough and unbiased fashion. In this study, we systematically evaluated more than 8000 SVs to identify mobile element-associated SVs as small as 100 bp and specific to the HuRef genome. Combining computational and experimental analyses, we identified and validated 706 mobile element insertion events (including Alu, L1, SVA elements, and nonclassical insertions), which added more than 305 kb of new DNA sequence to the HuRef genome compared with the Human Genome Project (HGP) reference sequence (hg18). We also identified 140 mobile element-associated deletions, which removed ~126 kb of sequence from the HuRef genome. Overall, ~10% of the HuRef-specific indels larger than 100 bp are caused by mobile element-associated events. More than one-third of the insertion/deletion events occurred in genic regions, and new Alu insertions occurred in exons of three human genes. Based on the number of insertions and the estimated time to the most recent common ancestor of HuRef and the HGP reference genome, we estimated the Alu, L1, and SVA retrotransposition rates to be one in 21 births, 212 births, and 916 births, respectively. This study presents the first comprehensive analysis of mobile element-related structural variants in the complete DNA sequence of an individual and demonstrates that mobile elements play an important role in generating inter-individual structural variation.

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