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Articles by S James
Total Records ( 4 ) for S James
  G Douaud , C Mackay , J Andersson , S James , D Quested , M. K Ray , J Connell , N Roberts , T. J Crow , P. M Matthews , S Smith and A. James
 

Early-onset schizophrenia appears to be clinically more severe than the adult-onset form of the disease. In a previous study, we showed that anatomically related grey and white matter abnormalities found in adolescents patients were larger and more widespread than what had been reported in the literature on adult schizophrenia. Particularly, we found novel structural abnormalities in the primary sensorimotor and premotor systems. Here, we tested alternative hypotheses: either this striking sensorimotor-related pattern is an artefact due to a better sensitivity of the methods, or apparent greater structural abnormalities in the early-onset population are specifically associated with earlier disease onset. Then, if we were to find such characteristic structural pattern, we would test whether these anatomical abnormalities would remain static or, conversely, show dynamic changes in the still developing brain. To address these questions, we combined a cross-sectional study of brain structure for adolescent-onset patients (n = 25) and adult-onset patients (n = 35) and respective matched healthy subjects with a longitudinal study of adolescent-onset patients (n = 12, representative subset of the cross-sectional group) and matched healthy controls for >2 years. Looking at differences between adolescent and adult patients’ grey matter volume and white matter microstructure abnormalities, we first confirmed the specificity (especially in motor-related areas) and the greater severity of structural abnormalities in the adolescent patients. Closer examination revealed, however, that such greater anomalies seemed to arise because adolescent patients fail to follow the same developmental time course as the healthy control group. Longitudinal analysis of a representative subset of the adolescent patient and matched healthy populations corroborated the delayed and altered maturation in both grey and white matters. Structural abnormalities specific to adolescent-onset schizophrenia in the sensori-motor cortices and corticospinal tract were less marked or even disappeared within the longitudinal period of observation, grey matter abnormalities in adolescent patients evolving towards the adult-onset pattern as defined by recent meta-analyses of adult schizophrenia. Combining cross-sectional adolescent and adult datasets with longitudinal adolescent dataset allowed us to find a unique, abnormal trajectory of grey matter maturation regardless of the age at onset of symptoms and of disease duration, with a lower and later peak than for healthy subjects. Taken together, these results suggest common aetiological mechanisms for adolescent- and adult-onset schizophrenia with an altered neurodevelopmental time course in the schizophrenic patients that is particularly salient in adolescence.

  P. G Steg , S James , R. A Harrington , D Ardissino , R. C Becker , C. P Cannon , H Emanuelsson , A Finkelstein , S Husted , H Katus , J Kilhamn , S Olofsson , R. F Storey , W. D Weaver , L Wallentin and for the PLATO Study Group
  Background—

Aspirin and clopidogrel are recommended for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or undergoing coronary stenting. Ticagrelor, a reversible oral P2Y12-receptor antagonist, provides faster, greater, and more consistent platelet inhibition than clopidogrel and may be useful for patients with acute ST-segment elevation (STE) ACS and planned primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Methods and Result—

Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO), a randomized, double-blind trial, compared ticagrelor with clopidogrel for the prevention of vascular events in 18 624 ACS patients. This report concerns the 7544 ACS patients with STE or left bundle-branch block allocated to either ticagrelor 180-mg loading dose followed by 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 300-mg loading dose (with provision for 300 mg clopidogrel at percutaneous coronary intervention) followed by 75 mg daily for 6 to 12 months. The reduction of the primary end point (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel (10.8% versus 9.4%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.01; P=0.07) was consistent with the overall PLATO results. There was no interaction between presentation with STE/left bundle-branch block and randomized treatment (interaction P=0.29). Ticagrelor reduced several secondary end points, including myocardial infarction alone (HR, 0.80; P=0.03), total mortality (HR, 0.82; P=0.05), and definite stent thrombosis (HR, 0.66; P=0.03). The risk of stroke, low in both groups, was higher with ticagrelor (1.7% versus 1.0%; HR,1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 2.48; P=0.02). Ticagrelor did not affect major bleeding (HR, 0.98; P=0.76).

Conclusion—

In patients with STE-ACS and planned primary percutaneous coronary intervention, the effects of ticagrelor were consistent with those observed in the overall PLATO trial.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.

  A Stebbins , R. H Mehta , P. W Armstrong , K. L Lee , C Hamm , F Van de Werf , S James , T Toftegaard Nielsen , R Seabra Gomes , H. D White , C. B Granger and for the Assessment of Pexelizumab in Acute Myocardial Infarction (APEX AMI Investigators)
  Background—

Accurate models to predict mortality are needed for risk stratification in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods and Results—

We examined 5745 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI in the Assessment of Pexelizumab in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial within 6 hours of symptom onset. A Cox proportional hazards model incorporating regression splines to accommodate nonlinearity in the log hazard ratio (HR) scale was used to determine baseline independent predictors of 90-day mortality. At 90 days, 271 (4.7%) of 5745 patients died. Independent correlates of 90-day mortality were (in descending order of statistical significance) age (HR, 2.03/10-y increments; 95% CI, 1.80 to 2.29), systolic blood pressure (HR, 0.86/10-mm Hg increments; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.90), Killip class (class 3 or 4 versus 1 or 2) (HR, 4.24; 95% CI, 2.97 to 6.08), heart rate (>70 beats per minute) (HR, 1.45/10-beat increments; 95% CI, 1.31 to 1.59), creatinine (HR, 1.23/10-µmol/L increments >90 µmol/L; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.34), sum of ST-segment deviations (HR, 1.25/10-mm increments; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.40), and anterior STEMI location (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.93) (c-index, 0.82). Internal validation with bootstrapping confirmed minimal overoptimism (c-index, 0.81).

Conclusions—

Our study provides a practical method to assess intermediate-term prognosis of patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, using baseline clinical and ECG variables. This model identifies key factors affecting prognosis and enables quantitative risk stratification that may be helpful in guiding clinical care and for risk adjustment for observational analyses.

  S James and V. Khurana
 

The Court of Appeal has shown how hard it can be to enforce trade marks for shapes by dismissing an appeal by Whirlpool, manufacturer and distributors of the KitchenAid ‘Artisan’ food-mixer, against the High Court's rejection of its claims for trade mark infringement and passing off in relation to Kenwood's ‘kMix’ food mixer. Despite acknowledging that there was some similarity between the two mixers, the Court of Appeal agreed with the High Court that such similarity was insufficient to cause confusion in the mind of the average design-conscious consumer. The Court also held that Kenwood's design did not take unfair advantage or cause detriment to the distinctive character or repute of Whirlpool's mark.

 
 
 
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