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Articles by S Huang
Total Records ( 13 ) for S Huang
  S Huang , A Zhang , G Ding and R. Chen

Aldosterone (Aldo) stimulates glomerular mesangial cell (MC) proliferation, in part, through an ERK1/2-dependent pathway. In this study, we examined whether Aldo activation of ERK1/2 in MC is mediated through redox-dependent EGF receptor (EGFR) transactivation, as well as the involvement of other signaling mechanisms in Aldo-induced MC proliferation. Aldo increased human MC proliferation, as determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation and cell counts. This increase in proliferation was blocked by inhibition of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Continuing our observations downstream in the signaling pathway, we examined the ability of Aldo to activate both the Ras/MAPK and the PI3K signaling pathways. Aldo increased Ki-RasA and Ki-RasA:GTP levels, and sequentially phosphorylated c-Raf, MAPK kinase (MEK1/2), and ERK1/2. Ki-RasA small interfering RNA (siRNA), the c-Raf inhibitor GW5074, and the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 reduced Aldo-induced cell proliferation by ~65%. Aldo also increased phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K1). Inhibition of the PI3K pathways by the selective PI3K inhibitor LY 294002, an Akt inhibitor, or the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduced cell proliferation by 51%. Combining LY 294002 and PD98059 completely blocked Aldo-induced MC proliferation. Next, we confirmed that Aldo exerts its effect on MAPK and PI3K activation, as well as on cell proliferation, by activating the EGFR. Pretreatment with the EGFR antagonist AG1478 inhibited MC proliferation, as well as the activation of Ras/MAPK and PI3K/Akt, suggesting that Ras/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation occur downstream of EGFR activation. Finally, we examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Aldo-induced transactivation of the EGFR. Aldo-induced ROS were predominantly generated by mitochondria. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine, catalase, SOD, mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I inhibitor rotenone (Rot), NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, and DPI significantly inhibited Aldo-stimulated MC proliferation as well as EGFR transactivation. However, Rot reduced MC proliferation more potently than apocynin and DPI. In conclusion, Aldo stimulated cell proliferation through MR-mediated, redox-sensitive EGFR transactivation, which was dependent on the Ki-RasA/c-Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling pathways in human MCs.

  S Huang , Y Zheng , P. J Foster , W Huang and M. He

Objective  To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in adults living in an urban area of southern China.

Methods  Random cluster sampling was used to identify the adults 50 years and older living in the Liwan district of Guangzhou, China. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) with habitual correction and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) based on autorefraction and subjective refraction were measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual chart. Blindness and low vision were defined according to World Health Organization criteria. Eyes with visual impairment were assigned 1 principal cause for the impairment.

Results  Visual acuity measurements were available for 1399 adults 50 years and older (75.3% participation rate). The prevalence of blindness and low vision based on the PVA was 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.2%-1.0%) and 10.1% (95% confidence interval, 8.5%-11.7%), respectively. These rates were reduced to 0.5% and 3.1% when the BCVA was considered. Based on the PVA, the principal causes for blindness were cataract (39.6%), glaucoma (11.0%), and myopic maculopathy (6.6%). The majority of low vision cases were attributable to cataract (45.3%) and uncorrected refractive error (43.9%).

Conclusion  The majority of eye diseases leading to visual impairment are potentially treatable in this population.

  J Ding , G He , W Gong , W Wen , W Sun , B Ning , S Huang , K Wu , C Huang , M Wu , W Xie and H. Wang

Frequent exposure to nickel compounds has been considered as one of the potential causes of human lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of nickel-induced lung carcinogenesis remains obscure. In the current study, slight S-phase increase, significant G2/M cell cycle arrest, and proliferation blockage were observed in human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) upon nickel exposure. Moreover, the induction of cyclin D1 and cyclin E by nickel was shown for the first time in human pulmonary cells, which may be involved in nickel-triggered G1/S transition and cell transformation. In addition, we verified that hypoxia-inducible factor-1, an important transcription factor of nickel response, was not required for the cyclin D1 or cyclin E induction. The role of p53 in nickel-induced G2/M arrest was excluded, respecting that its protein level, ser15 phosphorylation, and transcriptional activity were not changed in nickel response. Further study revealed that cyclin A was not activated in nickel response, and cyclin B1, which not only promotes G2/M transition but also prevents M-phase exit of cells if not degraded in time, was up-regulated by nickel through a manner independent of hypoxia-inducible factor. More importantly, our results verified that overexpressed cyclin B1, veiling the effect of cyclin D1 or cyclin E, mediated nickel-caused M-phase blockage and cell growth inhibition, which may render pulmonary cells more sensitive to DNA damage and facilitates cancer initiation. These results will not only deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in nickel carcinogenecity, but also lead to the further study on chemoprevention of nickel-associated human cancer. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1720–9)

  S. P Sheehy , S Huang and K. K. Parker

Background— Cardiac hypertrophy is classically regarded as a compensatory response, yet the active tissue remodeling processes triggered by various types of mechanical stress can enhance or diminish the function of the heart. Despite the disparity in outcomes, there are similarities in the hypertrophic responses. We hypothesized that a generic genetic response that is not dependent on the particular nature of the hypertrophic stimulus exists. To test our hypothesis, we compared the temporal evolution of transcriptomes measured in hearts subjected to either adaptive (exercise-induced) or maladaptive (aortic banding–induced) hypertrophy.

Methods and Results— Generic hypertrophy-associated genes were identified and distinguished from stimulus-dependent transcripts by coupling a metric of cardiac growth with a dynamic time-warping algorithm to align transcriptome changes with respect to the hypertrophy response. The major differences in expression between the adaptive and maladaptive hypertrophy models were centered around the genes involved in metabolism, fibrosis, and immune response. Conversely, transcripts with common expression patterns in both hypertrophy models were associated with signal transduction, cytoskeletal development, and muscle contraction. Thus, despite the apparent differences in the expression response of the heart to either athletic conditioning or pressure overload, there is a set of genes that displays similar expression profiles.

Conclusions— This finding lends support to the notion of a generalized cardiac growth mechanism that is activated in response to mechanical perturbation. The common and unique genetic signatures of adaptive and maladaptive hypertrophy may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of pathological myocardial remodeling.

  S Huang , H Li , X Ding and C. Xiong

Background: We recently detected cell-free seminal RNA (cfsRNA) and set out to study its concentration, integrity, stability in healthy individuals, and mechanisms for its protection from ribonucleases.

Methods: We quantified cfsRNA by reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) targeting of the 5' region of the ACTB (actin, beta) transcript. cfsRNA integrity was analyzed by microcapillary electrophoresis and by amplification of full-length ACTB and DDX4 [DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 4] transcripts, including measurement of the relative amounts of different regions of ACTB and DDX4 transcripts. Stability of cfsRNA was measured by time-course analysis of different regions of ACTB and DDX4 transcripts. To investigate whether cfsRNA was protected in complexed forms, we processed seminal plasma in 2 ways: filtration through pores of different sizes and Triton X-100 treatment before RNA recovery.

Results: cfsRNA concentrations varied from 0.87–3.64 mg/L [mean (SD), 1.75 mg/L (0.92 mg/L)]. Most cfsRNA was present in partially degraded forms, with smaller amounts of middle and 3' amplicons compared with 5' amplicons. Although the 3' region of the DDX4 transcript was degraded completely by 90 min, the 5' regions of ACTB and DDX4 transcripts were stable up to 24 h. Filtration through 0.22-µm pores reduced ACTB and DDX4 mRNA concentrations by 72% and 61%, respectively. Nearly all seminal ACTB and DDX4 mRNA disappeared after Triton X-100 treatment.

Conclusions: Although cfsRNA was partially degraded, it represented diverse transcript species and was abundant, fairly stable, and associated with particles in healthy individuals. cfsRNA may represent a potential noninvasive biomarker of the male reproductive system and of germline epigenetics.

  J Cheng , S Huang , H Yu , Y Li , K Lau and X. Chen

Trans-sialidases catalyze the transfer of a sialic acid from one sialoside to an acceptor to form a new sialoside. 2,3-Trans-sialidase activity was initially discovered in the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and more recently was found in a multifunctional Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase PmST1. 2,8-Trans-sialidase activity was also described for a multifunctional Campylobacter jejuni sialyltransferase CstII. We report here the discovery of the 2,6-trans-sialidase activity of a previously reported recombinant truncated bacterial 2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium damsela (15Pd2,6ST). This is the first time that the 2,6-trans-sialidase activity has ever been identified. Kinetic studies indicate that 15Pd2,6ST-catalyzed trans-sialidase reaction follows a ping-pong bi-bi reaction mechanism. Cytidine 5'-monophosphate, the product of sialyltransferase reactions, is not required by the trans-sialidase activity of the enzyme but enhances the trans-sialidase activity modestly as a non-essential activator. Using chemically synthesized Neu5AcpNP and LacβMU, 2,6-linked sialoside Neu5Ac2,6LacβMU has been obtained in one-step in high yield using the trans-sialidase activity of 15Pd2,6ST. In addition to the 2,6-trans-sialidase activity, 15Pd2,6ST also has 2,6-sialidase activity. The multifunctionality is thus a common feature of many bacterial sialyltransferases.

  L Zhang , K Lau , J Cheng , H Yu , Y Li , G Sugiarto , S Huang , L Ding , V Thon , P. G Wang and X. Chen

Lewis x (Lex) and sialyl Lewis x (SLex)-containing glycans play important roles in numerous physiological and pathological processes. The key enzyme for the final step formation of these Lewis antigens is 1-3-fucosyltransferase. Here we report molecular cloning and functional expression of a novel Helicobacter hepaticus 1-3-fucosyltransferase (HhFT1) which shows activity towards both non-sialylated and sialylated Type II oligosaccharide acceptor substrates. It is a promising catalyst for enzymatic and chemoenzymatic synthesis of Lex, sialyl Lex and their derivatives. Unlike all other 1-3/4-fucosyltransferases characterized so far which belong to Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy, glycosyltransferase family GT10, the HhFT1 shares protein sequence homology with 1-2-fucosyltransferases and belongs to CAZy glycosyltransferase family GT11. The HhFT1 is thus the first 1-3-fucosyltransferase identified in the GT11 family.

  Y Li , S Huang , X Wang , D Zhou , K Huang , H Guo , J Fang , C Chen and Q. Liu

We report on 2 children with Burkitt's lymphoma accompanied by extensive extranodal involvement treated with chemotherapy and Rituximab in combination with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (Auto-PBSCT) regimens. No obvious side effects could be seen during the Rituximab therapy. Both children achieved complete remission with no relapse after being followed up for 4.3 and 4 years, respectively. Our limited experience show that Rituximab in combination with chemotherapy and Auto-PBSCT might have better therapeutic effects on Burkitt's lymphoma of children and the side effects of Rituximab therapy is minimal and can be well tolerated.

  J Wang , L Zou , S Huang , F Lu , X Lang , L Han , Z Song and Z. Xu

To clarify the role of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; GSTM1 and GSTT1) status in susceptibility to coronary heart disease (CHD), a meta-analysis of published studies was performed. A total of 19 studies including 8020 cases and 11 501 controls were included in this meta-analysis. In a combined analysis, the relative risks for CHD of the GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null polymorphisms were 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–2.01] and 1.26 (95% CI: 0.90–1.75), respectively. Three potential sources of heterogeneity including ethnicity, source of control and sample size of study were also assessed. However, no significant association was found in stratified analyses. By pooling data from eight studies (2909 cases and 3745 controls) that considered combinations of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes, a statistically significant increased risk for CHD [odds ratio (OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.03–5.48)] was detected for individuals with combined deletion mutations in both genes compared with positive genotypes. Results from the meta-analysis of five studies on GSTs stratified according to smoking status showed an increased risk for individuals with null genotype (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.24–3.92 for GSTM1 and OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.49–7.26 for GSTT1) versus non-null genotypes. This meta-analysis suggests that the GSTM1 null genotype may slightly increase the risk of CHD and that interaction between unfavourable GSTs genotypes may exist.

  R. E Taylor , C. J Gregg , V Padler Karavani , D Ghaderi , H Yu , S Huang , R. U Sorensen , X Chen , J Inostroza , V Nizet and A. Varki

The nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is metabolically incorporated into human tissues from certain mammalian-derived foods, and this occurs in the face of an anti-Neu5Gc "xeno-autoantibody" response. Given evidence that this process contributes to chronic inflammation in some diseases, it is important to understand when and how these antibodies are generated in humans. We show here that human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies appear during infancy and correlate with weaning and exposure to dietary Neu5Gc. However, dietary Neu5Gc alone cannot elicit anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in mice with a humanlike Neu5Gc deficiency. Other postnatally appearing anti-carbohydrate antibodies are likely induced by bacteria expressing these epitopes; however, no microbe is known to synthesize Neu5Gc. Here, we show that trace exogenous Neu5Gc can be incorporated into cell surface lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a human-specific commensal/pathogen. Indeed, infant anti-Neu5Gc antibodies appear coincident with antibodies against NTHi. Furthermore, NTHi that express Neu5Gc-containing LOS induce anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in Neu5Gc-deficient mice, without added adjuvant. Finally, Neu5Gc from baby food is taken up and expressed by NTHi. As the flora residing in the nasopharynx of infants can be in contact with ingested food, we propose a novel model for how NTHi and dietary Neu5Gc cooperate to generate anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in humans.

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