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Articles by S Hu
Total Records ( 6 ) for S Hu
  S Hu , C. C Kim , C Jessup , T. L Phung and C. Curiel Lewandrowski

Background  In addition to a complete skin examination every few months, adjuvant interferon treatment is often recommended for patients with high-risk melanomas. Therefore, dermatologists play an important role in detecting multiple primary melanomas and may be required to attempt to identify the primary melanoma in patients with metastatic disease.

Observations  We describe 3 patients with a diagnosis of melanoma who were diagnosed as having a new primary cutaneous melanoma within weeks of initiating interferon treatment. All 3 melanomas were inflamed clinically, prompting excisional biopsy. Histopathologic analysis of the melanomas revealed thin (<1.0 mm Breslow thickness) invasive tumors, as well as the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and/or regression.

Conclusions  Inflamed melanocytic lesions in patients undergoing interferon treatment should be further evaluated to investigate the possibility of primary cutaneous melanomas. This observation may enable earlier detection and treatment of melanomas in patients with multiple tumors or metastatic melanoma with an unknown primary site.

  S Hu , Y Parmet , G Allen , D. F Parker , F Ma , P Rouhani and R. S. Kirsner

Objective  To examine and compare the temporal trends in melanoma incidence and stage at diagnosis among whites, Hispanics, and blacks in Florida from 1990 to 2004.

Design  Cross-sectional and retrospective analysis.

Setting  Florida Cancer Data System.

Patients  Melanoma cases with known stage and race/ethnicity reported from 1990 to 2004.

Main Outcome Measures  Age-adjusted melanoma incidence and stage at diagnosis.

Results  Of 41 072 cases of melanoma, 39 670 cases were reported for white non-Hispanics (WNHs), 1148 for white Hispanics (WHs), and 254 for blacks. Melanoma incidence rates increased by 3.0% per year among WNH men (P < .001), 3.6% among WNH women (P < .001), 3.4% among WH women (P = .01), and 0.9% among WH men (P = .52), while remaining relatively stable among black men and women. Both WHs and blacks had significantly more advanced melanoma at presentation: 18% of WH and 26% of black patients had either regional or distant-stage melanoma at diagnosis compared with 12% of WNH patients. The proportion of distant-stage melanoma diagnosed among WHs and blacks changed little from 1990 to 2004, compared with a steady decrease in the percentage of melanoma cases diagnosed at distant stage among WNHs (P < .001). Such differences in the time trends of the proportion of distant-stage melanoma remained after excluding in situ cases.

Conclusions  The rising melanoma incidence among WNHs and WHs emphasizes the need for primary prevention. The persistence of disparity in melanoma stage at diagnosis among WHs, blacks, and WNHs warrants closer examination of secondary prevention efforts in minority groups.

  S Hu , Z Zheng , X Yuan , W Wang , Y Song , H Sun and J. Xu

Background— Despite its widespread use and short-term efficacy, substantial uncertainty remains about the long-term outcomes and cost-effectiveness of off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB).

Methods and Results— A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was conducted of 6665 consecutive patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) at our institution during 1999 to 2006. All patients were followed up until September 30, 2008. Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between OPCAB and conventional CABG. The 2 main long-term outcome measures were repeat revascularization and the composite outcome of major vascular events. Cost comparison at 2 years in a propensity-matched sample during follow-up was also a study interest. The overall mean baseline age was 60.3±8.6 years, and 17.0% were women. Compared with conventional CABG, patients who underwent OPCAB had lower rates of atrial fibrillation (P=0.003) and requirements for blood transfusion (P=0.03) and ventilation time >24 hours (P<0.001). After an average of 4.5 years of follow-up, the rates of repeat revascularization (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.89) and major vascular events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.39) were significantly higher in the OPCAB than the conventional CABG group. At 2 years, OPCAB was associated with increased additional direct costs per patient compared with conventional CABG and had a similar survival rate.

Conclusions— Compared with conventional CABG, OPCAB is associated with small short-term gain but increased long-term risks of repeat revascularization and major vascular events, especially among high-risk patients. Moreover, OPCAB consumes more resources and is less cost-effective in the long run.

  K. D Wilson , S Hu , S Venkatasubrahmanyam , J. D Fu , N Sun , O. J Abilez , J. J. A Baugh , F Jia , Z Ghosh , R. A Li , A. J Butte and J. C. Wu

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered endogenous class of small, noncoding RNAs that play important posttranscriptional regulatory roles by targeting messenger RNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Human embryonic stem cells are known to express miRNAs that are often undetectable in adult organs, and a growing body of evidence has implicated miRNAs as important arbiters of heart development and disease.

Methods and Results—

To better understand the transition between the human embryonic and cardiac "miRNA-omes," we report here the first miRNA profiling study of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells. Analyzing 711 unique miRNAs, we have identified several interesting miRNAs, including miR-1, -133, and -208, that have been previously reported to be involved in cardiac development and disease and that show surprising patterns of expression across our samples. We also identified novel miRNAs, such as miR-499, that are strongly associated with cardiac differentiation and that share many predicted targets with miR-208. Overexpression of miR-499 and -1 resulted in upregulation of important cardiac myosin heavy-chain genes in embryoid bodies; miR-499 overexpression also caused upregulation of the cardiac transcription factor MEF2C.


Taken together, our data give significant insight into the regulatory networks that govern human embryonic stem cell differentiation and highlight the ability of miRNAs to perturb, and even control, the genes that are involved in cardiac specification of human embryonic stem cells.

  K Anastassiadis , J Fu , C Patsch , S Hu , S Weidlich , K Duerschke , F Buchholz , F Edenhofer and A. F. Stewart
  Konstantinos Anastassiadis, Jun Fu, Christoph Patsch, Shengbiao Hu, Stefanie Weidlich, Kristin Duerschke, Frank Buchholz, Frank Edenhofer, and A. Francis Stewart

Tyrosine site-specific recombinases (SSRs) including Cre and FLP are essential tools for DNA and genome engineering. Cre has long been recognized as the best SSR for genome engineering, particularly in mice. Obtaining another SSR that is as good as Cre will be a valuable addition to the genomic toolbox. To this end, we have developed and validated reagents for the Dre-rox system. These include an Escherichia coli-inducible expression vector based on the temperature-sensitive pSC101 plasmid, a mammalian expression vector based on the CAGGs promoter, a rox-lacZ reporter embryonic stem (ES) cell line based on targeting at the Rosa26 locus, the accompanying Rosa26-rox reporter mouse line, and a CAGGs-Dre deleter mouse line. We also show that a Dre-progesterone receptor shows good ligand-responsive induction properties. Furthermore, we show that there is no crossover recombination between Cre-rox or Dre-loxP. Hence, we add another set of efficient tools to the genomic toolbox, which will enable the development of more sophisticated mouse models for the analysis of gene function and disease.

  S Hu , G Yao , X Guan , Z Ni , W Ma , E. M Wilson , F. S French , Q Liu and Y. Zhang

Epididymal function depends on androgen signaling through the androgen receptor (AR), although most of the direct AR target genes in epididymis remain unknown. Here we globally mapped the AR binding regions in mouse caput epididymis in which AR is highly expressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing indicated that AR bound selectively to 19,377 DNA regions, the majority of which were intergenic and intronic. Motif analysis showed that 94% of the AR binding regions harbored consensus androgen response elements enriched with multiple binding motifs that included nuclear factor 1 and activator protein 2 sites consistent with combinatorial regulation. Unexpectedly, AR binding regions showed limited conservation across species, regardless of whether the metric for conservation was based on local sequence similarity or the presence of consensus androgen response elements. Further analysis suggested the AR target genes are involved in diverse biological themes that include lipid metabolism and sperm maturation. Potential novel mechanisms of AR regulation were revealed at individual genes such as cysteine-rich secretory protein 1. The composite studies provide new insights into AR regulation under physiological conditions and a global resource of AR binding sites in a normal androgen-responsive tissue.

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