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Articles by S Hong
Total Records ( 4 ) for S Hong
  H Zhou , Y Xiao , R Li , S Hong , S Li , L Wang , R Zeng and K. Liao

Adipocyte is not only a central player involved in storage and release of energy, but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of peptides and proteins. During the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, adipocytes are subjected to the increased levels of insulin, which may have a major impact on the secretion of adipokines. We have undertaken cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag (cICAT) and label-free quantitation approaches to identify and quantify secretory factors that are differentially secreted by 3T3-L1 adipocytes with or without insulin treatment. Combination of cICAT and label-free results, there are 317 proteins predicted or annotated as secretory proteins. Among these secretory proteins, 179 proteins and 53 proteins were significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. A total of 77 reported adipokines were quantified in our study, such as adiponectin, cathepsin D, cystatin C, resistin, and transferrin. Western blot analysis of these adipokines confirmed the quantitative results from mass spectrometry, and revealed individualized secreting patterns of these proteins by increasing insulin dose. In addition, 240 proteins were newly identified and quantified as secreted proteins from 3T3-L1 adipocytes in our study, most of which were up-regulated upon insulin treatment. Further comprehensive bioinformatics analysis revealed that the secretory proteins in extracellular matrix-receptor interaction pathway and glycan structure degradation pathway were significantly up-regulated by insulin stimulation.

  A. G Shaikh , S Hong , K Liao , J Tian , D Solomon , D. S Zee , R. J Leigh and L. M. Optican

The inferior olivary nuclei clearly play a role in creating oculopalatal tremor, but the exact mechanism is unknown. Oculopalatal tremor develops some time after a lesion in the brain that interrupts inhibition of the inferior olive by the deep cerebellar nuclei. Over time the inferior olive gradually becomes hypertrophic and its neurons enlarge developing abnormal soma-somatic gap junctions. However, results from several experimental studies have confounded the issue because they seem inconsistent with a role for the inferior olive in oculopalatal tremor, or because they ascribe the tremor to other brain areas. Here we look at 3D binocular eye movements in 15 oculopalatal tremor patients and compare their behaviour to the output of our recent mathematical model of oculopalatal tremor. This model has two mechanisms that interact to create oculopalatal tremor: an oscillator in the inferior olive and a modulator in the cerebellum. Here we show that this dual mechanism model can reproduce the basic features of oculopalatal tremor and plausibly refute the confounding experimental results. Oscillations in all patients and simulations were aperiodic, with a complicated frequency spectrum showing dominant components from 1 to 3 Hz. The model’s synchronized inferior olive output was too small to induce noticeable ocular oscillations, requiring amplification by the cerebellar cortex. Simulations show that reducing the influence of the cerebellar cortex on the oculomotor pathway reduces the amplitude of ocular tremor, makes it more periodic and pulse-like, but leaves its frequency unchanged. Reducing the coupling among cells in the inferior olive decreases the oscillation’s amplitude until they stop (at ~20% of full coupling strength), but does not change their frequency. The dual-mechanism model accounts for many of the properties of oculopalatal tremor. Simulations suggest that drug therapies designed to reduce electrotonic coupling within the inferior olive or reduce the disinhibition of the cerebellar cortex on the deep cerebellar nuclei could treat oculopalatal tremor. We conclude that oculopalatal tremor oscillations originate in the hypertrophic inferior olive and are amplified by learning in the cerebellum.

  S HONG and N. M. VOGEL

What we know about the mechanisms of food allergies and eosinophilic esophagitis, how to diagnose them, and how to treat them.

  S Kim , J. Y Yang , K Lee , K. H Oh , M Gi , J. M Kim , D. J Paik , S Hong and J. Youn

Peripheral naive CD4+ T cells selectively differentiate to type 1 Th, type 2 Th and IL-17-producing Th (Th17) cells, depending on the priming conditions. Since these subsets develop antagonistically to each other to elicit subset-specific adaptive immune responses, balance between these subsets can regulate the susceptibility to diverse immune diseases. The present study was undertaken to determine whether poly--glutamic acid (-PGA), an edible and safe exopolymer that is generated by microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis, could modulate the development pathways of Th subsets. The presence of -PGA during priming promoted the development of Th1 and Th17 cells but inhibited development of Th2 cells. -PGA up-regulated the expression of T-bet and ROR-t, the master genes of Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively, whereas down-regulating the level of GATA-3, the master gene of Th2 cells. -PGA induced the expression of IL-12p40, CD80 and CD86 in dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages in a Toll-like receptor-4-dependent manner, and the effect of -PGA on Th1/Th2 development was dependent on the presence of antigen-presenting cells (APC). Furthermore, -PGA-stimulated DC favored the polarization of naive CD4+ T cells toward Th1 cells rather than Th2 cells. In contrast, -PGA affected Th17 cell development, regardless of the presence or absence of APC. Thus, these data demonstrate that -PGA has the potential to regulate the development pathways of naive CD4+ T cells through APC-dependent and -independent mechanisms and to be applicable to treating Th2-dominated diseases.

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