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Articles by S Hiremath
Total Records ( 2 ) for S Hiremath
  S Hiremath , R. M Holden , D Fergusson and D. L. Zimmerman

Background and objectives: Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are often prescribed antiplatelet medications. However, these patients are also at increased risk of bleeding compared with the general population, and an aim was made to quantify this risk with antiplatelet agents.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A systematic review of the literature (Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and Google Scholar databases) was done to determine the bleeding risk in ESRD patients prescribed antiplatelet therapy. The secondary outcome was the effect on access thrombosis. All case series, cohort studies and clinical trials were considered if they included ten or more ESRD patients, assessed bleeding risk with antiplatelet agents, and lasted for more than 3 mo.

Results: Sixteen studies, including 40,676 patients, were identified that met predefined inclusion criteria. Due to study heterogeneity and weaknesses in methodology, bleeding rates were not pooled across studies. However, the bleeding risk appears to be increased for hemodialysis patients treated with combination antiplatelet therapy. The results are mixed for studies using a single antiplatelet agent. Antiplatelet agents appear to be effective in preventing shunt and central venous catheter thrombosis, but not for preventing thrombosis of arteriovenous grafts.

Conclusion: The risks and benefits of antiplatelet agents in ESRD patients remain poorly defined. Until a clinical trial addresses this in the dialysis population, individual risk stratification taking into account the increased risk of bleeding should be considered before initiating antiplatelet agents, especially in combination therapy.

  S. S Brar , S Hiremath , G Dangas , R Mehran , S. K Brar and M. B. Leon

Background and objectives: Infusion of sodium bicarbonate has been suggested as a preventative strategy but reports are conflicting on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of hydration with sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI).

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and the Internet were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing hydration between sodium bicarbonate and chloride for the prevention of CI-AKI between 1966 and November 2008. Fourteen trials that included 2290 patients were identified. There was significant heterogeneity between studies (P heterogeneity = 0.02; I2 = 47.8%), which was largely accounted for by trial size (P = 0.016). Trials were therefore classified by size.

Results: Three trials were categorized as large (n = 1145) and 12 as small (n = 1145). Among the large trials, the incidence of CI-AKI for sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride was 10.7 and 12.5%, respectively; the relative risk (RR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] was 0.85 (0.63 to 1.16) without evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.89, I2 = 0%). The pooled RR (95% CI) among the 12 small trials was 0.50 (0.27 to 0.93) with significant between-trial heterogeneity (P = 0.01; I2 = 56%). The small trials were more likely to be of lower methodological quality.

Conclusions: A significant clinical and statistical heterogeneity was observed that was largely explained by trial size and published status. Among the large randomized trials there was no evidence of benefit for hydration with sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium chloride for the prevention of CI-AKI. The benefit of sodium bicarbonate was limited to small trials of lower methodological quality.

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