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Articles by S Hannenhalli
Total Records ( 2 ) for S Hannenhalli
  M. E Putt , S Hannenhalli , Y Lu , P Haines , H. R Chandrupatla , E. E Morrisey , K. B Margulies and T. P. Cappola

Background— Pathological stresses induce heart failure in animal models through activation of multiple cardiac transcription factors (TFs) working cooperatively. However, interactions among TFs in human heart failure are less understood. Here, we use genomic data to examine the evidence that 5 candidate TF families coregulate gene expression in human heart failure.

Methods and Results— RNA isolates from failing (n=86) and nonfailing (n=16) human hearts were hybridized with Affymetrix HU133A arrays. For each gene on the array, we determined conserved MEF2, NFAT, NKX , GATA , and FOX binding motifs within the –1-kb promoter region using human-murine sequence alignments and the TRANSFAC database. Across 9076 genes expressed in the heart, TF-binding motifs tended to cluster together in nonrandom patterns within promoters of specific genes (P values ranging from 10–2 to 10–21), suggesting coregulation. We then modeled differential expression as a function of TF combinations present in promoter regions. Several combinations predicted increased odds of differential expression in the failing heart, with the highest odds ratios noted for genes containing both MEF2 and NFAT binding motifs together in the same promoter region (peak odds ratio, 3.47; P=0.005).

Conclusions— These findings provide genomic evidence for coregulation of myocardial gene expression by MEF2 and NFAT in human heart failure. In doing so, they extend the paradigm of combinatorial regulation of gene expression to the human heart and identify new target genes for mechanistic study. More broadly, we demonstrate how integrating diverse sources of genomic data yields novel insight into human cardiovascular disorders.

  A Vishnoi , S Kryazhimskiy , G. A Bazykin , S Hannenhalli and J. B. Plotkin

It is well known that young proteins tend to experience weaker purifying selection and evolve more quickly than old proteins. Here, we show that, in addition, young proteins tend to experience more variable selection pressures over time than old proteins. We demonstrate this pattern in three independent taxonomic groups: yeast, Drosophila, and mammals. The increased variability of selection pressures on young proteins is highly significant even after controlling for the fact that young proteins are typically shorter and experience weaker purifying selection than old proteins. The majority of our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the function of a young gene tends to change over time more readily than that of an old gene. At the same time, our results may be caused in part by young genes that serve constant functions over time, but nevertheless appear to evolve under changing selection pressures due to depletion of adaptive mutations. In either case, our results imply that the evolution of a protein-coding sequence is partly determined by its age and origin, and not only by the phenotypic properties of the encoded protein. We discuss, via specific examples, the consequences of these findings for understanding of the sources of evolutionary novelty.

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