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Articles by S Cheng
Total Records ( 4 ) for S Cheng
  S Cheng , V. R.S Fernandes , D. A Bluemke , R. L McClelland , R. A Kronmal and J. A.C. Lima
 

Background— Age-related alterations of left ventricular (LV) structure and function that may predispose to cardiovascular events are not well understood.

Methods and Results— We used cardiac MRI to examine age-related differences in LV structure and function in 5004 participants without overt cardiovascular disease when enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; 1099 participants received additional strain analyses by MRI tagging. We also assessed the relation of age-associated remodeling with cardiovascular outcomes using Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. Although LV mass decreased with age (–0.3 g per year), the mass-to-volume ratio markedly increased (+5 mg/mL per year, P<0.0001), driven by a substantial reduction in end-diastolic volume (–0.8 mL per year, P<0.0001). Age was also associated with a significant fall in stroke volume (–0.4 mL per year, P<0.0001), along with strain patterns reflecting systolic (P<0.0001) as well as diastolic (P<0.01) myocardial dysfunction—despite a modestly enhanced ejection fraction (+0.1% per year, P<0.0001). Increased mass-to-volume ratio conferred a significant risk for total cardiovascular events; this trend was strongest among younger (<65 years; hazard ratio, 3.69 [CI, 1.34 to 10.10]) versus older (≥65 years; hazard ratio, 1.68 [CI 0.77 to 3.68]) individuals with the highest compared to lowest mass-to-volume ratio quintile (Pinteraction=0.013).

Conclusions— Age is associated with a phenotype of LV remodeling marked by increased mass-to-volume ratio and accompanied by systolic as well as diastolic myocardial dysfunction that is not reflected by preserved ejection fraction. This pattern of ventricular remodeling confers significant cardiovascular risk, particularly when present earlier in life.

  E Liu , S Cheng , X Wang , D Hu , T Zhang and C. Chu
  Background

Contact investigation is a logical approach to intensified case finding in China. However, currently there are no written national guidelines. The aim of this study is to review the published literature that describes the procedures followed by local level and report the yield for active tuberculosis (TB) cases.

Methods

Studies conducted in China and published between 1997 and 2007 on contact investigation were searched.

Results

Twelve studies were included in the review. There was no standard definition of contact and no study provided details on how to prioritize contacts. Investigation methods vary between each study. The number of contacts investigated per index case ranged from 22.7 to 658 in congregate settings and from 1.5 to 5.8 in household. The yields for active TB ranged from 0 to 11.765% in congregate settings and from 0 to 6.897% in household. The weighted yields for smear-positive index and smear-negative index were 1 and 0.2% respectively in household and 0.5% for pulmonary case index in congregate settings.

Conclusion

There is considerable heterogeneity amongst the methods used and the cases yielded in these studies, and in general the quality of contact investigation is low; therefore, there is a need for China to develop national guidelines on contact investigation.

  A Eng , A 'T Mannetje , S Cheng , J Douwes , L Ellison Loschmann , D McLean , P Gander , I Laird , S Legg and N. Pearce
 

Introduction: This study examines the prevalence of a range of occupational risk factors reported by a random sample of the New Zealand working population.

Methods: Men and women aged 20–64 were selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll and invited to take part in a telephone interview, which collected information on lifetime work history, current workplace exposures and organizational factors, and various health conditions. The prevalences of occupational risk factors in each occupational and industry group are reported.

Results: Three thousand and three interviews were completed (37% of the eligible sample and 55% of those that could be contacted). Trades workers reported the highest prevalences of exposure to dust (75%) and oils and solvents (59%). Agriculture and fishery workers reported the highest prevalences of exposure to pesticides (63%) and acids or alkalis (25%). Plant and machine operators and assemblers reported the highest prevalences of exposure to smoke/fume/gas (43%), working night shift in the previous 4 weeks (18%), and working irregular hours (33%). In the high exposure occupational and industry groups, males reported a higher prevalence of exposure than females. Lifting, exposure to loud noise, and the use of personal protective equipment were reported by >50% of the manual occupational groups.

Conclusions: This study indicates that occupational exposure to risk factors for work-related disease and injury remains common in the New Zealand working population. While these occupational exposures are disproportionately experienced by workers in certain industries, they also occur in occupational groups not traditionally associated with hazardous exposures or occupational disease.

  A Eng , A 'T Mannetje , J Douwes , S Cheng , D McLean , L Ellison Loschmann and N. Pearce
 

Introduction: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey in New Zealand that collected information on work history, current workplace exposures, and selected health outcomes. We report here the findings on occupational risk factors for asthma symptoms.

Methods: A random sample of men and women aged 20–64 years were selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll and invited to take part in a telephone survey. Current asthma was defined as: (i) woken up by shortness of breath in the past 12 months; or (ii) an attack of asthma in the past 12 months; or (iii) currently taking asthma medication. Adult-onset asthma was defined as first attack of asthma at age 18 or over. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for all occupations were calculated using logistic regression adjusting for sex, age, smoking, and deprivation.

Results: Totally, 2903 participants were included in the analyses. The prevalence of current asthma was 17% and the prevalence of adult-onset asthma was 9%. Prevalence ORs for current asthma were elevated for ever working as a printer [OR = 2.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09–4.66], baker (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.02–3.85), sawmill labourer (OR = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.05–10.16), metal processing plant operator (OR = 2.48; 95% CI = 1.22–5.05), and cleaner (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.09–2.35). Excess risks of adult-onset asthma were also found for ever working as a printer, baker, and sawmill labourer as well as ever-working as a market-oriented animal producer (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.14–2.41), and other agricultural worker (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.03–4.20). A number of occupations not previously considered at high risk for asthma were also identified, including teachers and certain sales professionals.

Conclusion: This population-based study has confirmed findings of previous international studies showing elevated risks in a number of high-risk occupations. The strongest risks were consistently observed for printers, bakers, and sawmill labourers. Several occupations were also identified that have not been previously associated with asthma, suggesting that the risk of occupational asthma may be more widely spread across the workforce than previously assumed.

 
 
 
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