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Articles by S Allen
Total Records ( 2 ) for S Allen
  V Agrawal , J Ye , J McCann , B Hehn , J Freeman , S Allen and G. Braden
 

We present an interesting case of a young female smoker who was hospitalized for shortness of breath and acute renal insufficiency (serum creatinine = 2.8 mg/dL). Few weeks prior to admission, she was discovered to have a right lung mass, and a biopsy confirmed lung adenocarcinoma. Her work-up revealed an unremarkable urinalysis quantitatively and on microscopic analysis. Renal ultrasound demonstrated enlarged bilateral unobstructed kidneys, while a nuclear scan showed increased activity in both kidneys. Renal biopsy established the diagnosis of diffuse metastatic infiltration of both kidneys from primary lung adenocarcinoma. Her renal function worsened despite initiation of chemotherapy. Carcinomatous infiltration of the kidneys is an extremely rare and unusual cause of renal injury that must be suspected in a patient with cancer and large kidneys.

  J. F Salazar Gonzalez , M. G Salazar , B. F Keele , G. H Learn , E. E Giorgi , H Li , J. M Decker , S Wang , J Baalwa , M. H Kraus , N. F Parrish , K. S Shaw , M. B Guffey , K. J Bar , K. L Davis , C Ochsenbauer Jambor , J. C Kappes , M. S Saag , M. S Cohen , J Mulenga , C. A Derdeyn , S Allen , E Hunter , M Markowitz , P Hraber , A. S Perelson , T Bhattacharya , B. F Haynes , B. T Korber , B. H Hahn and G. M. Shaw
 

Identification of full-length transmitted HIV-1 genomes could be instrumental in HIV-1 pathogenesis, microbicide, and vaccine research by enabling the direct analysis of those viruses actually responsible for productive clinical infection. We show in 12 acutely infected subjects (9 clade B and 3 clade C) that complete HIV-1 genomes of transmitted/founder viruses can be inferred by single genome amplification and sequencing of plasma virion RNA. This allowed for the molecular cloning and biological analysis of transmitted/founder viruses and a comprehensive genome-wide assessment of the genetic imprint left on the evolving virus quasispecies by a composite of host selection pressures. Transmitted viruses encoded intact canonical genes (gag-pol-vif-vpr-tat-rev-vpu-env-nef) and replicated efficiently in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes but much less so in monocyte-derived macrophages. Transmitted viruses were CD4 and CCR5 tropic and demonstrated concealment of coreceptor binding surfaces of the envelope bridging sheet and variable loop 3. 2 mo after infection, transmitted/founder viruses in three subjects were nearly completely replaced by viruses differing at two to five highly selected genomic loci; by 12–20 mo, viruses exhibited concentrated mutations at 17–34 discrete locations. These findings reveal viral properties associated with mucosal HIV-1 transmission and a limited set of rapidly evolving adaptive mutations driven primarily, but not exclusively, by early cytotoxic T cell responses.

 
 
 
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