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Articles by Rossi Indiarto
Total Records ( 3 ) for Rossi Indiarto
  Rossi Indiarto , Yudi Pranoto , Umar Santoso and Supriyanto
  Background and Objective: The content of polyphenols in cacao beans can be modified during the processing of cacao. This study aimed to obtain the fraction of cacao bean extract polyphenols with the highest antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds profile of extracts and their fractions on cacao beans. Materials and Methods: The cacao beans (fermented for 5 days and unfermented) were blanched (5 min; 95°C), followed with defatted, freeze-dried and extracted uses 80% ethanol solvent. The extract obtained was then fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous. Extracts and fractions obtained are calculated for yield, total polyphenol uses Folin-ciocalteu reagent, total flavonoid uses AlCl3, antioxidant activity uses DPPH and FRAP methods, functional group uses fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and polyphenol compound profiles uses UHPLC-MS/MS. Results: The results showed that the aqueous fraction had the highest yield but lowest chemical content and antioxidant activity. The unfermented cacao beans extract undergoing fractionation using ethyl acetate showed polyphenol content, flavonoids, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and highest ferric reducing activity. The FTIR analysis showed that the cacao bean extract and its fractions had O-H, C-H, C=O, C=C and C-O-C functional groups. Cacao beans extracts and ethyl acetate fractions were dominated by procyanidin compounds, especially dimer B2. Cacao bean fermentation caused a decrease in procyanidin compounds (monomer to nonamer) and alkaloids (theobromine and caffeine). Conclusion: Unfermented cacao bean extraction is then followed by fractionation with ethyl acetate solvent, obtained the fraction with highest chemical and antioxidant activity.
  Rossi Indiarto , Yudi Pranoto , Umar Santoso and Supriyanto
  Background and Objective: The activity of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme during fermentation and drying causes a decrease in the polyphenol and flavonoid content of cacao beans. Blanching is important to inactivate the enzyme. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of cacao bean extract in order to obtain a polyphenol-rich cacao extract. Materials and Methods: Unfermented and fermented cacao beans were blanched using water at 95°C ±2°C for 1, 3, 5 and 7 min. The process was then followed with drying and defatting using n-hexane and completed with extraction of polyphenol compounds using 80% ethanol. The blanched cacao beans were analyzed in terms of polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and color, while the extracts of dried cacao beans were analyzed in terms of the relative activity of polyphenol oxidase, color, total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging activity using DPPH, ferrous ion (Fe2+) chelating activity and the presence of functional groups using fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Results: Blanching unfermented cacao beans at 95°C for 5 min reduced the relative activity of polyphenol oxidase by >99%, maintained the purple color of the unfermented cacao beans and produced the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Five minute blanching also increased antioxidant activity compared to the activity of unblanched cacao beans. The process of fermentation and hot air drying had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the decrease of polyphenols and the associated DPPH antioxidant activity in cacao beans. However, there was no effect (p>0.05) on Fe2+ chelating activity in unblanched cacao beans. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were strongly correlated with DPPH antioxidant activity but were not correlated with Fe2+ chelating activity. Conclusion: Blanching unfermented cacao beans with hot water for 5 min at 95°C was shown to increase the free radical scavenging activity by deactivating the polyphenol oxidase enzyme and thereby increasing the total polyphenol content.
  Edy Subroto , Tensiska , Rossi Indiarto , Mahani , Nadya Firstyani Mihayudhathie and Annisa Rizky Fauzia
  Background and Objective: Structured lipids (SLs) consisting of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) at the outside position (sn-1,3) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at the sn-2 position have good nutritional values and high stabilities for oxidation. The objective of this research was to synthesize SLs containing SFAs at the sn-1,3 position and PUFAs at the sn-2 position by the enzymatic acidolysis of fish oil with milk fat fatty acids (MFFAs). Materials and Methods: Fish oil, containing high PUFAs, was combined with milk fat that was hydrolyzed to MFFAs through saponification with KOH followed by acidification with HCl and extraction with hexane. SLs were synthesized by acidolysis using a specific lipase from Mucor miehei. The factors of substrate ratio and reaction time were studied. The SLs were analyzed for the fatty acid compositions, acylglycerol profiles and positional distributions of the fatty acids at sn-2 and sn-1,3. Results: The increasing proportions of the MFFAs and the increase in the reaction time increased the incorporation of SFA into the SLs. An acidolysis ratio of fish oil to MFFAs of 1:3 and a reaction time of 6 h at 40°C resulted in a good SL, where EPA and DHA were incorporated at sn-2 at 13.20 and 12.85%, respectively and SFAs (capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids) at sn-1,3 at approximately 58.25%. The SL had an acylglycerol profile containing triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG) and monoacylglycerol (MAG) at 69.45, 22.32 and 8.23%, respectively. Conclusion: The optimum enzymatic acidolysis conditions for synthesizing the SL were a molar ratio of fish oil to MFFAs of 1:3 and a reaction time of 6 h at 40°C. The SL has the potential to fortify high-nutrition dairy products.
 
 
 
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