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Articles by Rosalam Sarbatly
Total Records ( 9 ) for Rosalam Sarbatly
  Duduku Krishnaiah , Awang Bono , Rosalam Sarbatly and Siti Fadhilah
  Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure 19.8 MPa and temperature 51°C with different amount of ethanol (0-100 mL) was studied the extraction of palm kernel oil from palm kernel cake. The amount of oil produced from SFE and Modified ethanol-CO2 are proportional to the amount of ethanol. It was found that α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, sterols and fatty acid such lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid were present in all of the palm kernel oil sample.
  Duduku Krishnaiah , Rosalam Sarbatly , D.M.R. Prasad and Awang Bono
  The mineral content of some species Caulerpa, Ulva, Sargassum, Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Gelidiella and Kappaphycus was investigated. These are the major variety of seaweeds available in Sabah South China Sea (Malaysia) and contained high proportions of ash content (20.56- 40.5%). The green and brown seaweeds ash content (37.27-40.5%) was higher than the red seaweeds (20.56-22.41%). The iron content was rich in the sequence of Gelidiella>Caulerpa> Sargassum> Eucheuma and its range was found to be 6.6-10.94 mg/100 g dry weight. The major seasonal deviation was found to be 9.25% Mg, 6.44% Ca and 5.3% Fe. This study was conducted to create a nutritional data for consumption and utilization in the industry.
  Rosalam Sarbatly
  This study investigated the possibility of simultaneous reactions of the gelatinization, liquefaction and saccharification (SGLS) carried out at two reaction temperatures of saccharification 55 and 60°C for instant glucose production as well as controlling low viscosity of solute over the hydrolysis period. At 55°C, 10% (w/w) of the tapioca starch and 0.9 mL L–1 of a blending mixture of α-amylase and amyloglocosidase, the viscosity was kept low below 2.2x10–3 pa-s throughout the hydrolysis process. The conversion of the tapioca starch to glucose was as high as 65% (w/w) over 28 h of the hydrolysis time. Increasing the temperature to 60°C did not increase the conversion but, (1) increased the maximum rate of reaction from 8.89g L–1 h–1 to 13.3 g L–1h–1 (2) reduced the time to reach a half of the final glucose concentration from 6.1 to 5 h and also (3) slightly increased the earlier stage of solute viscosity without affecting the entire process.
  Rosalam Sarbatly , Duduku Krishnaiah , Richard England , Sariah Abang and Jeanette Jeffery
  In this study, the boundary-resistance layer model and solution-diffusion model were used to investigate the applied driving pressure force technique and the concentration driving force technique, respectively, for the production of intravenous drip solution. A 5 kD monolithic membrane coated with Al2O3 and TiO and NaCl aqueous solution as the feed solution was used. The results show that the boundary-resistance layer model diffusivity coefficient, D = 1.8x10–9 m2 sec–1 and the mass transfer coefficient, k = 1.1910–4 m sec–1 which were both slightly higher than the solution-diffusion model. Applying Fick`s law for the solution diffusion model, the calculated operating pressure inside the lumen was 15 kPa. Clearly, the findings suggested that the boundary-resistance layer model should be chosen for the production of pure and sterile intravenous salt solution as it provided higher diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient than the solution-diffusion model.
  Rosalam Sarbatly
  This study discusses the effect of kaolin/PESf ratio and sintering temperature on the pore size and porosity of the flat sheet kaolin membrane support. Inexpensive kaolin has been proposed as a replacement for Al2O3, Ti2O and ZrO2 as a membrane material. In casting the support precursor, Polyethersulfone (PESf), solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and kaolin were used as a polymer binder, solvent and ceramic powder, respectively. The morphology structure and pore size were observed under the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the porosity were obtained by calculation using weight loss, area and thickness data of the prepared support. The results showed that both of the membrane pore size and porosity linearly decreased from 20 to 8 μm and 26 to 11% , respectively when sintering temperature was increased from 1100 to 1500°C and kaolin/PESf ratio was increased from 1:1 to 3.5:1.
  Duduku Krishnaiah , Rosalam Sarbatly , S.M. Anisuzzaman , Rajesh Nithyanandam and Phong Ming San
  This study conducted adsorption experiments on azeotropic and non-azeotropic mixtures at a constant temperature in the presence and absence of ultrasound. Ultrasound waves were applied at a frequency of 21 kHz and amplitude of 25% at atmospheric pressure. The adsorption of azeotropic and non-azeotropic mixtures was evaluated according to Gibbs dividing plane theory. The results indicated that the adsorptive capacity of azeotropic and non-azeotropic mixtures on activated carbon decreased in the presence of ultrasound.
  Duduku Krishnaiah , Rosalam Sarbatly , Awang Bono , S.M. Anisuzzaman and Sharmila Subramaniam
  Transesterification of methyl ester is a reversible reaction and requires excess methanol to drive the reaction forward. In this study, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) membrane reactor was used to separate glycerol during reaction, to attain high conversion of palm oil at lower methanol to oil ratio. Thus reduces the amount of methanol used. The transesterification of palm oil was performed using base catalyst. Experiments were performed in the membrane reactor in batch mode at different catalyst concentrations and different molar ratio (methanol/oil). Asymmetric polyethersulfone ultrafiltration flat sheet membranes with Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) of different molecular weight as additive were prepared by phase inversion process from casting solution containing Polyethersulfone (PES) as polymer, N,N-porylydone (NMP) as solvent and PEG of different molecular weights namely PEG 200, PEG 300 and PEG 400 as additives. The results show that PES with different PEG as additive are suitable for separation of glycerol during the reaction.
  Duduku Krishnaiah , Rosalam Sarbatly , S.M. Anisuzzaman and Rendy Kasin
  Dense ceramic membrane has become a major selection for its potential to give high oxygen enrichment from surrounding air. The separation through dense ceramic membrane has overcome several limitations of polymeric membrane material and therefore it is capable of performing efficient means of oxygen production. Experiments were carried out to study the potential of ceramic membrane for oxygen system on oxygen/nitrogen mixtures, where the effects of operating pressure and temperature were observed and discussed. The oxygen concentration in the permeate stream increases when the operating pressure increased for each set of air flow rate of 20, 30 and 40 LPM. The permeate oxygen concentration at 40 LPM and 25 psi was found to be 5.30 ppm where as at 20 LPM and 150°C and was 5.13 ppm.
  Chel-Ken Chiam , Azreen Ibrahim and Rosalam Sarbatly
  This study demonstrates desalination using cross-flow Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) under negative membrane pressure differences. The membrane pressure difference is defined as the partial pressure difference of water vapour between the upstream membrane surface and the downstream membrane surface. The negative membrane pressure differences are resulted from the low feed temperatures (40-60°C) and the high downstream pressures (14.5-40 kPa). The experimental results showed that positive fluxes (2-3.6 kg m-2 h) take place although the system is operated under the negative membrane pressure differences. The humidity on upstream side higher than the humidity on downstream side allows the water vapour transfers from the feed to the permeate sides. Relatively high feed temperatures and relatively low downstream pressures resulted in high enthalpy differences and hence high fluxes. The hydrostatic pressure on the feed circulation loop contributed a minor effect on the total flux when membrane pore wetting takes place. The rejection of salt under these conditions was at least 96%.
 
 
 
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