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Articles by Riyadh Muhaidat
Total Records ( 2 ) for Riyadh Muhaidat
  Riyadh Muhaidat , Athena D. McKown , Wesam Al Khateeb , Mai Al-Shreideh , Zakariya Bani Domi , Emad Hussein and Ahmad El-Oqlah
  Blepharis constitutes an important element of the desert vegetation in the Middle East, inhabiting extreme desert habitats of the Saharo-Arabian and Sudanian regions. It is the only genus in the Acanthaceae that includes C4 species; however, comprehensive studies for these species are generally absent. This study presents a thorough assessment of C4 biochemical subtype in B. attenuata Napper through investigating leaf ultrastructural features and activities of C4 acid decarboxylating enzymes. Leaf anatomy of B. attenuata revealed a typical atriplicoid Kranz type, with prominent chlorenchymatous bundle sheath and mesophyll tissues forming concentric rings around leaf veins. Transmission electron microscopy showed characteristic features of NADP-malic enzyme subtype, with bundle sheath chloroplasts having grana with reduced thylakoid appression compared to mesophyll counterparts. Immunolocalizations of key C4 pathway enzymes showed a strict compartmentalization patterns between bundle sheath and mesophyll, with Rubisco localized in the bundle sheath and both PEP-carboxylase and pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase were confined to the mesophyll. Measurements of enzyme activities showed that NADP-malic enzyme demonstrated the highest activity, suggesting that B. attenuata would best be classified as a NADP-malic enzyme subtype C4 species. This study reveals that Blepharis encompasses at least two biochemical subtypes of C4 photosynthesis within the genus.
  Emad I. Hussein , Ghassan J. M. Kanan , Khalid M. Al- Batayneh , Khalaf Alhussaen , Wesam Al Khateeb , Janti Qar , Jacob H. Jacob , Riyadh Muhaidat and Mohamed I. Hegazy
  The post-harvest moulds Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are important plant pathogens and spoilage-causing molds especially against citrus fruits. If not treated, post-harvest moulds can cause enormous economic losses during storage and marketing. Therefore, more investigations are needed to examine new antifungal agents against such fungi. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of some plant extracts (namely, Harmal seeds (Peganum harmala L.), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum cassia L.) and sticky fleabane leaves (Inula viscosa L.), food preservatives (namely, sodium benzoate, sodium molybdate, ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate, potassium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate) and their mixtures, i.e., plant extracts and food preservatives against P. digitatum and P. italicum. Both disc agar diffusion method and broth dilution methods was used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the plant extracts and food preservatives. Results revealed that methanolic fractions of cinnamons’ bark and sticky fleabane leaves showed the highest efficacy. MIC values of 150 and 37.5 μg mL-1 were obtained with cinnamons’ fraction against P. italicum and P. digitatum, respectively. Sodium benzoate was the most effective against tested fungal species. The obtained MIC values against P. digitatum and P. italicum were 37.5 and 75 μg mL-1, respectively. Mixtures of tested chemicals showed synergistic effects against both fungal species. Mixtures of sodium benzoate and fractions of either cinnamon or sticky fleabane reflected synergistic effects against P. italicum and antagonistic effects against P. digitatum. Inhibition zones against P. italicum ranged between 38-57 mm.
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