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Articles by Rifat-uz-Zaman
Total Records ( 11 ) for Rifat-uz-Zaman
  Rifat-uz-Zaman , Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar and Muhammad Shafiq Khan
  Polygonum viviparum, root has been used in the folkloric medicine for the treatment of a many diseases including gastrointestinal disorders. Powdered roots of Polygonum viviparum (PV) and its aqueous (PV-A) and ethanol (PV-E) extracts were evaluated for anti-ulcerogenic efficacy in rats with ulcer lesions in the glandular stomach induced by indomethacin (25 mg kg-1)subcutaneously, to rationalize the folkloric uses. The pretreatment of PV protected the experimental rats against gastric changes caused by indomethacin in a dose-dependent manner. PV-A and PV-E extracts (equivalent to 2.0 g kg-1) of the powder also inhibited the indomethacin-induced effects on gastric juice volume, pH, acid-output and ulcer index. PV, PV-A and PV-E showed highly significantly in vitro acid buffering and pepsin binding activities. The data indicates that PV and its extracts protect the gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced gastric changes, may result from their lipid peroxidation/apoptosis inhibition.
  Rifat-uz-Zaman , Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar and Muhammad Shafiq Khan
  Although introduction of modern drugs to the classic anti-ulcer therapy has been revolutionized the treatment of peptic ulcer but the complete cure of the disease has yet to be discovered. In an effort to explore indigenous medicinal plants the powdered leaves of Cichorium intybus (CI) and its extracts i.e., aqueous, ethanol, were investigated for their anti-secretary and anti-ulcer activities in the albino rats (Sprague-Dawley, weighing 180-220 g) with gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin (25 mg kg-1, subcutaneous). The treatment of CI attenuated the indomethacin-induced changes in gastric juice volume, pH, acid-output and ulcer index in a dose-dependent manner. The aqueous (CI-Aq) and ethanol (CI-E) extracts (equivalent to 2.0 g kg-1 of body weight) of the powder also protected the rats against gastric effects induced by indomethacin. CI and its extracts showed significant acid buffering in vitro activities. The findings indicate that CI and its extracts possess active principle(s) that protect the gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced gastric changes, possibly due to its antioxidant effect that inhibits lipid peroxidation.
  Rifat-uz-Zaman , Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar and Muhammad Shafiq Khan
  In the present study, extracts from four folkloric medicinal plants, previously reported potential anti-ulcer; Anethum graveolens L. fruit, (AG), Cichorium intybus L. leaf, (CI), Plantago ovata L. seed husk (PO) and Polygonum viviparum, L. root, (PV), were screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori (HP) activity. Anti-HP activity of the powdered drugs extracted by water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone, obtaining yields of 2.34-13.43 g kg-1 (w/w), by using the turbidity method was determined. The aqueous extract exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against H. pylori strain (obtained from ulcer patients), of which ranged from 0.6 to 10.5 mg mL-1, followed, in ascending order, by the Cichorium intybus leaf (CI), Polygonum viviparum root (PV), Anethum graveolens fruit (AG) and Plantago ovata seed husk (PO). Antibacterial activity was determined CI, PV, PO, AG extracts, with the highest percentage of inhibition (1.2-62.6%) demonstrated for the water, followed, in descending order, by the ethanol, ethylacetate and acetone analogs. Anti-HP activity appeared to be in a dose-dependent manner. The extracts (aqueous and ethanol) of CI and PV due to potent and AG and PO due to the moderate potent anti-H. pylori activities might ultimately be proved, the preferred and curative anti-ulcer agent.
  Rifat-uz-Zaman , Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar and Muhammad Shafiq Khan
  Anethum graveolens, fruit has been used in the oriental medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases including gastrointestinal disorders. The fruit powder of Anethum graveolens (AG) and its extracts were investigated for anti-secretary effects in rats with erosions on the glandular stomach induced by subcutaneous administration of 25 mg kg ha-1 indomethacin, to rationalize the folkloric uses. The pretreatment of AG protected the rats against gastric effects induced by indomethacin in a dose-dependent manner. The aqueous (AG-A) and ethanolic (AG-E) extracts (equivalent to 2.0 g kg ha-1 ) of the powder also attenuated the indomethacin-induced changes in gastric juice volume, pH, acid-output and ulcer index. AG and its extracts also showed significant acid buffering activities in vitro. The in vitro pepsin binding activity of AG was found significant while insignificant with AG-A and AG-E. These findings indicate that AG and its extracts protect the gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced gastric changes, may result, from their antioxidant effect, which inhibits lipid peroxidation.
  Rifat-uz-Zaman and Mobasher Ahmad
  The hepatoprotective study of Raphanas sativus fruit powder (RS), it`s aqueous (RS-A) and ethanolic (RS-E) extracts was performed on rabbits. The fruit powder (0.5-1.5 g kg-1 of body weight) tested in cadmium chloride (Cd) treated rabbits. The effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of RS (equivalent to 1.5 g kg-1 of body weight) were also noted (with Cd). Both RS-A and RS-E significantly decreased the total bilirubin level and activity of enzymes i.e. ALT and AP in serum of Cd-treated rabbits. RS-E declined the serum ALT activity more effectively than the RS or RS-A in the treated animals. The lowering effect of the RS was more marked as compared to its extracts on the serum AP and total bilirubin level in the treated rabbits. Anti-inflammatory/anti-apoptosis activity of RS may be responsible for this hepatoprotective activity.
  Rifat-uz-Zaman
  The immunogenicity profiles of the recombinant hepatitis B vaccines commercially available in Pakistan were compared to Engerix-B® in a double-blind, prospective equivalence study. A total of 744 subjects (449 male, 295 female) of different age group and professions (randomly selected) of urban areas of Bahawalpur district were included in this study. Population was divided in six different groups (children, young and adult of either sex) and each group was administered (intramuscularly) one brand of vaccine (0, 1 and 6 month schedule). Children groups were vaccinated by 10 μg while young and adults groups by 20 μg of respective vaccine. The participants had blood samples taken (3-times; at the time of second dose, one and six months after third dose). The seroprotection; geometric mean titer (mIU mL-1) of six different vaccine used, were found maximum 1880.46±12.48 with Amvax B and minimum 1790.62±18.26 with Hepa-B-vac in children group, from 1897.43±17.26 (Engirex-B) to 1815.46±12.74 (Hepa-B-vac) in young group and from 1881.75±10.97 (Amvax-B®) to 1729.82±8.85 (Hepa-B-vac) in adult group. The antibody titers <10 mIU mL-1 were found highest (3.8%) with Hepa-B-vac® and lowest (2.4%) with Amvax-B® and Hepavax-Gene®. Antibody titers 10<100, 100<1000 and >1000 mIU mL-1 were observed 14.56 (Hepa-B-vac®) to 9.1% (Amvax-B®), 40.56 (Heberbiovac) to 39.15% (Hepavax-Gene) and 48.8 (Engirex-B) to 41.61% (Hepa-B-vac), respectively. The study concluded that all the recombinant hepatitis B vaccines tested were equipotent and similar in immunogenicity to Engerix-B® in the human urban population of Bahawalpur-Pakistan.
  Rifat-uz-Zaman
  The present study examines the prevalence of hepatitis (B andC) infection in population of the urban areas of Bahawalpur district. The study population comprised of 6815 peoples (3924 male, 2891 female) of different age group and professions. The subjects were selected randomly and had blood samples taken. Rapid immunochromatographic tests were conducted to detect hepatitis B and C infections. The prevalence of diseases was: hepatitis B, 9.59% and hepatitis C,4.41% indicating the spread of infections on rise in Pakistan. The results of the study illustrate the importanceof education of the society including health care individuals to observe the protective measures against hepatic viral infections and of maintaining the health care measures.
  Rifat-uz-Zaman
  Cardio-pharmacological investigation of Raphanas sativus fruit powder, its water and ethanolic extracts was performed in rabbits to search the effective tool against cardiac disorders from natural sources. The fruit powder (0.5-1.5 g kg-1 of body weight) tested in Cyclosporin (30 mg kg-1) treated rabbits. The effects of water and ethanolic extracts of R. sativus fruit powder (Eq. to 1.5 g kg-1 of body weight) were also noted in the presence of Cyclosporin. The powder and its aqueous extract highly significantly (P<0.001) decreased the Uric acid and activity of enzymes I. e. GOT and LDH in serum of treated rabbits. Ethanolic extract did not show any significant attenuation to the cardiac effects of Cyclosporin in the rabbits. Both the fruit powder and its aqueous extract showed (in vitro) free radical-scavenging effect in a dose dependent manner on DPPH assay. R. sativus fruit powder and its aqueous extract might strengthen the antioxidant defense system to resist the free radical induced damage brought about by Cyclosporin caused ischaemic condition.
  Rifat-uz-Zaman , Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar and Muhammad Shafiq Khan
  Nigella sativa, seeds has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases including gastrointestinal disorders. N. sativa seed powder (NS), its extracts and purified fractions were studied for their possible gastroprotective effects in the indomethacin-treated rats (adult albino male rats weighing 180-220 g) to rationalize the folkloric uses. NS protected the rats against indomethacin-induced gastric effects in a dose-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of the powder (NS-E) also attenuated the indomethacin-induced changes in gastric juice volume, pH, acid-output and ulcer index. Partition of ethanol soluble ingredients in organic solvents yielded semi-purified fractions whose anti-ulcer activity guided further chemical purification. The active fraction w as chromatographically characterized and the most purified fraction (NS-EA 51) obtained, presented anti-ulcerogenic activities in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in the rats. Various parameters including gastric juice volume, pH, acid-output, ulcer index and peptic activity showed that it was the most potent anti-ulcerogenic fraction which gave results comparable to Famotidine. The gastroprotective or anti-secretary, anti-peptic and anti-ulcerogenic actions of NS-EA 51 might be related to its anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant activity.
  Rifat-uz-Zaman
  Diabetes mellitus (DM) is growing, a modern epidemic due to rapidly increasing prevalence in recent decades worldwide. Prevalence of DM and contributing risk factors were estimated by performing a cross-sectional study in the urban population of Bahawalpur-district Pakistan. A total of 1161 peoples (≥20-70 years; 589 male and 572 female) were divided into 3 groups i.e., young (20≥35 years), mature (35≥50 years) and old (>50-70 years). Diagnosis of DM and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) was performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Overall prevalence of DM was 19.21% (95% CI; 17.04-21.58), maximum 21.16% (95% CI; 17.80-24.95) in old group followed by mature (19.53, 95% CI; 16.30-23.21) and minimum in young (16.99, 95% CI; 11.82-23.79) groups. Young (16.07, 95% CI; 8.46-28.04) and mature (19.17, 95% CI; 14.87-24.35) female groups showed lesser while old (21.60, 95% CI; 16.93-27.13) group higher DM prevalence in comparison to the respective male groups. A significant high (p = 0.042350) prevalence (21.97, 95% CI; 18.95-25.31) was found among low educated in comparison to middle and high educated people. An ascending prevalence was observed with both increasing income and increasing consumption of carbohydrate-rich diet. Diabetics with positive family history of DM (22.46%, CI; 19.20-26.10) showed a significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.025210) verses negative family history diabetics (16.17%, CI; 13.43-19.33). A significantly high (p = 0.006540) prevalence among >30 kg m-2 weight/obese population (26.07%, CI; 21.74-30.93) was observed. Data suggests that public health target is obesity and directly relating factors; socioeconomic status and carbohydrate-rich diet, focusing on especially high-risk group of positive heredity for diabetes.
  Rifat-uz-Zaman
  Hepatitis B virus infection has become a major health problem world over. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of HBV-markers in relation to promotive factors among human urban population of Bahawalpur-district, Pakistan. Randomly selected population (both sex, 10-70 years) of Bahawalpur (n = 1464) divided into 3 age groups; young (10≥20 years), mature (20≥50 years) and old (>50 years) was tested for blood groups. HBsAg and/or Anti-HBc positive participants were interviewed regarding past and present life style to determine promotive factors. Over all HBV-markers prevalence was observed 12.57%. Maximum infection was 13.79% (95% CI: 11.09 to 17.03, p>0.01) in old group compared with mature and young groups. HBV-markers positivity was statistically not associated with sex, ABO blood groups and Rh-factors. An inverse relationship (p>0.01) was observed between prevalence of HBV-markers and socioeconomic level of under trial population. Significantly (p>0.01) high seroprevalence was found in individuals with high rate of crowding (>4/room), stored water users, regular parlor/barber’s shop visitors, those who were living/working with HBV infected people (s), surgically operated/blood transfused participants, dental clinic visitors and due to non-sterile pricking. HBV-infection is spreading rapidly among population of Bahawalpur district, Pakistan linking with deprived socioeconomic conditions, poor sanitation, non-sterile pricking, unprotected surgery/blood transfusion, parlor/barber’s shops, dentist’s clinics and HBV infected/carriers.
 
 
 
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