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Articles by Richard James
Total Records ( 2 ) for Richard James
  Ying Zhang , Mireille N. Vankemmelbeke , Lisa E. Holland , David C. Walker , Richard James and Christopher N. Penfold
  Enzymatic colicins such as colicin E9 (ColE9) bind to BtuB on the cell surface of Escherichia coli and rapidly recruit a second coreceptor, either OmpF or OmpC, through which the N-terminal natively disordered region (NDR) of their translocation domain gains entry into the cell periplasm and interacts with TolB. Previously, we constructed an inactive disulfide-locked mutant ColE9 (ColE9s-s) that binds to BtuB and can be reduced with dithiothreitol (DTT) to synchronize cell killing. By introducing unique enterokinase (EK) cleavage sites in ColE9s-s, we showed that the first 61 residues of the NDR were inaccessible to cleavage when bound to BtuB, whereas an EK cleavage site inserted at residue 82 of the NDR remained accessible. This suggests that most of the NDR is occluded by OmpF shortly after binding to BtuB, whereas the extreme distal region of the NDR is surface exposed before unfolding of the receptor-binding domain occurs. EK cleavage of unique cleavage sites located in the ordered region of the translocation domain or in the distal region of the receptor-binding domain confirmed that these regions of ColE9 remained accessible at the E. coli cell surface. Lack of EK cleavage of the DNase domain of the cell-bound, oxidized ColE9/Im9 complex, and the rapid detection of Alexa Fluor 594-labeled Im9 (Im9AF) in the cell supernatant following treatment of cells with DTT, suggested that immunity release occurred immediately after unfolding of the colicin and was not driven by binding to BtuB.
  Richard P. Spence , Victoria Wright , Dlawer A. A. Ala-Aldeen , David P. Turner , Karl G. Wooldridge and Richard James
  The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is isolated and characterized using traditional culture and sensitivity methodologies that are slow and offer limited information on the organism. In contrast, DNA microarray technology can provide detailed, clinically relevant information on the isolate by detecting the presence or absence of a large number of virulence-associated genes simultaneously in a single assay. We have developed and validated a novel, cost-effective multiwell microarray for the identification and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus. The array comprises 84 gene targets, including species-specific, antibiotic resistance, toxin, and other virulence-associated genes, and is capable of examining 13 different isolates simultaneously, together with a reference control strain. Analysis of S. aureus isolates whose complete genome sequences have been determined (Mu50, N315, MW2, MRSA252, MSSA476) demonstrated that the array can reliably detect the combination of genes known to be present in these isolates. Characterization of a further 43 S. aureus isolates by the microarray and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has demonstrated the ability of the array to differentiate between isolates representative of a spectrum of S. aureus types, including methicillin-susceptible, methicillin-resistant, community-acquired, and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, and to simultaneously detect clinically relevant virulence determinants.
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