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Articles by Ricardo Gomez-Flores
Total Records ( 4 ) for Ricardo Gomez-Flores
  Ricardo Gomez-Flores , Diana Caballero-Hernandez , Richard J. Weber , Reyes Tamez-Guerra , Patricia Tamez-Guerra and Cristina Rodriguez-Padilla
  Norepinephrine (NE) has been associated not only with increasing blood pressure, atherosclerosis, heart disease, and other life threatening conditions, but also with altering immune responses by influencing leukocyte functions. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of NE on rat thymic lymphocyte and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (HPBMC) functions. We observed that NE marginally, but significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced (1.3-fold increase) proliferation of rat thymic lymphocytes at 10-5 M, without altering HPBMC proliferation, as compared with untreated control. In addition, NE (10-5 M) significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced nitric oxide production (2.9 + 0.095 nmol/well) (which reduced 20% cell viability), and stimulated (P < 0.01) TNF-α production (4 + 0.16 pg/ml) by rat macrophages. NE (10-5 M) was also observed to induce 2-fold increase in mRNA signal of TNF-α, and stimulated that of IL-1 and IL-6 by HPBMC, as compared with untreated control. Taken together, these results indicated that NE was capable to activate in vitro rat and human lymphocyte and macrophage pro-inflammatory response.
  Ricardo Gomez-Flores , Kimberly R. Vietti , William J. Dunn III , Reyes Tamez-Guerra and Richard J. Weber
  Opioids can suppress immune functions and increase susceptibility to developing cancer and infectious diseases. Recently, novel opioid compounds have been synthesized that lack immunosuppressive effects. We evaluated the effects of morphinans with substituted pyrimidine (methyl, phenyl, hydroxy, and amino groups) and pyrazole groups on in vitro rat thymic lymphocyte and splenic macrophage functions, and tumor cell growth. We observed that morphinans with methyl, phenyl, hydroxy, amino, and pyrazole groups at concentrations from 10-10M to 10-5M plus Con A (2.5 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.01) induced 2- to 2.9-, 2.3- to 6.4-, 2.4- to 3.4-, 2.6- to 3.4-, and 2.6- to 3.2-fold increases respectively in thymic lymphoproliferation compared with Con A alone; this effect was reversed by naloxone. Macrophage nitric oxide production was not altered by morphinans. In addition, we observed that all tested morphinans were associated with significant (P < 0.01) in vitro tumor cell growth inhibition of J774A (18-41%), L929 (12-36%), L5178 (9-15%) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, at doses ranging from 10-11M to 10-5M. Morphinans may be applied in clinical situations where immunosuppression is undesirable.
  Richard J. Weber , Ricardo Gomez-Flores , Ichiro Sora and George R. Uhl
  In vivo administration of μ-opioid receptor selective agonists to various species is known to suppress lymphocyte, NK cell, and macrophage functions, in addition to mediate pain relief and euphoria. Using a mouse model in which the μ-opioid receptor gene was disrupted by targeted homologous recombination, we explored the involvement of this receptor in natural killer (NK) cell activity and T lymphocyte function. Following peripheral morphine administration, NK cell activity was not affected in homozygous μ-opioid receptor knockout mice, heterozygous animals marginaly responded to the immunosuppressive effects of the drug, while wild-type animals were significantly suppressed. In addition, splenic T-cell proliferative responses to concanavalin A, phytohemaglutinin and an antibody to T-cell receptor (TCR) plus interleukin-2 were not affected by morphine treatment in μ-opioid receptor knockout homozygous and heterozygous mice, whereas morphine significantly suppressed T-cell proliferation in wild-type mice. Taken together, these results suggest a role of the µ-opioid receptor in immunoregulation.
  Carlos Ramirez-Pfeiffer , Efren Diaz-Aparicio , Ricardo Gomez-Flores , Cristina Rodriguez-Padilla , Alberto Morales-Loredo and Genoveva Alvarez-Ojeda
  The performance of the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using the recently described Brucella melitensis native hapten and the Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide tracer was evaluated and compared with those of The World Organization for Animal Health tests related to indirect and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as classification variables for goat sera obtained from a high-prevalence area where vaccination was performed; test series were also evaluated to increase the final specificity of the tests. Our results showed that the respective relative sensitivity and specificity were 99.7% and 32.5% for the rose Bengal test with a 3% cell concentration (RBT3), 92.8% and 68.8% for the rose Bengal test with 8% cell concentration (RBT8), 98.4% and 84.9% for the Canadian complement fixation test (CFT), 83.7% and 65.5% for the Mexican CFT, 98.4% and 81.0% for the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), and 78.1% and 89.3% for the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA). The use of the FPA as the secondary test significantly increased the final specificities of test combinations; the screening tests BPAT, RBT3, and RBT8 plus FPA resulted in 90%, 91.2%, and 91.3% final specificities, respectively, whereas for the combinations RBT3 plus Mexican CFT, RBT8 plus Mexican CFT, and BPAT plus Canadian CFT, the specificities were 65.5%, 63.2%, and 91.7%, respectively. The results suggested that the FPA may be routinely applied as an adaptable screening test for diagnosis of goat brucellosis, since its cutoff can be adjusted to improve its sensitivity or specificity, it is a rapid and simple test, it can be the test of choice when specificity is relevant or when an alternative confirmatory test is not available, and it is not affected by vaccination, thus reducing the number of goats wrongly slaughtered due to misdiagnosis.
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