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Articles by Riaz Ahmad
Total Records ( 8 ) for Riaz Ahmad
  Riaz Ahmad and Absar-ul Hasnain
  With the increasing application of ultrasonics in meat tenderization and processing, physicochemical events initiated by sonic radiation at myofibrillar level and propagated in complex tissue such as meat require a clear understanding. The enormous amount of basic information collected by studying myofibrils, actomyosin or their individual constituents has already clarified intricacies of muscular contraction and, part of such basic information has find application in meat sciences. In this investigation, chicken Natural actomyosin (NAM) has been taken as a simple model to work out some effects of ultrasonication in a concentration range of 0.5 to 1.8 mg protein mL-1. At each concentration, NAM solution in 0.6 M NaCl (2.0 mL) was individually exposed to 20 kHz sonic waves for a total of 10 min. Cooling was maintained by keeping NAM containers in crushed ice and a lag of 5 sec after each 10 sec long sonic burst. Aliquots from each sonicated NAM were subjected to biochemical analyses. Most striking differences were observed in Ca2+-ATPase activity, which displayed a steady decline that corresponded with the decreasing protein concentration. Ultrasonication of NAM for 10 min caused a loss of ~47% of Ca2+-ATPase activity at the highest dilution (0.5 mg mL-1). In the same order of protein concentration, turbidity of ultrasonicated NAM also decreased which denotes increasing transparency. Thus, ATPase and turbidity data demonstrate that due to sonic radiation, interactions among constituents of chicken actomyosin complex alter and these structural changes are devoid of any fragmentation. Under present experimental conditions, SDS-PAGE profiles did not reveal any novel band which could be attributed to ultrasonic fragmentation or proteolytic contamination. The findings also suggest that unlike myofibrils, actomyosin is a model where interactions and substructural changes of constituent polypeptides can be investigated without interference of endogenous muscle proteases.
  Riaz Ahmad , Tariq Mahmood , M. Farrukh Saleem and Shamim Ahmad
  The study was undertaken to determine the effect of three row spacings viz. 30, 45 and 60 cm on the yield and quality of two sesame varieties i.e 92001 and TS 3.The results showed that maximum seed yield (0.7147 t ha-1) was obtained with 30 cm row spacing and variety TS 3 gave about 110 % more seed yield and 1.37 % more oil content than variety 92001.
  Hafeez Ullah Khan , Riaz Ahmad , Waqar Ahmed , S.M. Khan and M. Aslam Khan
  The addition of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum as nematophagous fungi separately along with organic substrate to the infested soil, sufficiently retarded the pathogenic activity of Meloidogyne incognita. Addition of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum in combination amended with organic substrate gave the effective control of root-knot nematodes population thus reduced root-knot disease and increased plant vigour.
  Riaz Ahmad , Rakesh B. Pandey , S. Hasan Arif , Nikhat Nabi , Mumtaz Jabeen and Absar-ul Hasnain
  SDS-PAGE profiles of soluble eye lens nuclei proteins of walking catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.) revealed the existence of eight distinct polymorphs along the western region of Uttar Pradesh, India. On the basis of their molecular weights (Mr) and isoelectric points (pI), the polypeptides were identified as β- and γ-crystallins. The crystallins characteristically focused between pI values of 5.2 to 8.7 and had molecular weights of 19 to 34 kDa. Statistical analysis of polymorphs within random catches indicated a latitudinal pattern of fish distribution. We propose that the observed distribution pattern is the consequence of limited terrestrial migration of C. batrachus. Nocturnal migration to nearby water bodies is its outstanding characteristic as an air-breathing and walking silurid, specifically during rainy season. Population substructure is genetically recognizable into three zones: upper, central and lower; out of which the latter two are most inhabited. F-value according to ANOVA was 1.095 indicating that at different locations, polymorphs existed in differing frequencies (p = 0.375). Present results thus suggest that with the exception of the flood-prone locations, selection pressures which have limited the output of this threatened catfish have not disturbed the homogeneity of population structure in the investigated region.
  Riaz Ahmad , Intikhab Hazoor Wahla , Z.A. Cheema and Ehsan Ullah
  A field study pertaining to different intertillage practices on maize was conducted in spring 1998. Different intertillage practices comprised of no intertillage + no earthing-up, no intertillage + earthing-up, intertillage twice with Tarphali + no earthing up, intertillage twice with Tarphali + earthing-up, manual weeding + no earthing up, intertillage twice with spade + earthing-up. The significant maximum grain yield (4.3 t ha–1) of maize and net income (Rs. 27713) was obtained by intertillage twice with spade and earthing-up as against the minimum grain yield (3.02 t ha–1) with net income of Rs. 20385/ha in case of no intertillage + no earthing up treatment.
  Hafeez Ullah Khan , Riaz Ahmad , M. Aslam Khan and Ahmad Saleem Akhtar
  Integrated disease control experiments, revealed that with the increase in disease control operations, the disease incidence decreased gradually. The best control of root knot disease was achieved 85.34% over control in treatments of combination of sterilized soil with formalise, organic soil amendments, planting of nursery plants after dipping in 0.1% solution of Tenekil and use of antagonists in soil. All other treatments applied separately showed less effective results, than the integrated treatment application.
  Tariq Mahmood , M. Saeed and Riaz Ahmad
  Crop irrigated at 25 and 50 percent ASMD gave 21.53 and 17.10 percent greater grain yield ha–1 than that irrigated at 75 percent ASMD. Application of P2O5 at 200, 150 and 100 kg ha–1 increased grain yield by 24.50, 20.31 and 13.64 percent, respectively over control. In general, maize irrigated at 25 percent ASMD gave significantly higher grain starch and ail content, than that irrigated of 75 percent ASMD, but it significantly decreased grain protein content. Similarly application of K2O significantly increased grain starch and oil content. However, K2O application had non-significant effect on grain protein content in 1992 but caused significant increase in 1993.
  M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh , Riaz Ahmad , Javaid Iqbal , M. Mudassar Maqbool , Anser Ali , M. Ishaque and Safdar Hussain
  Maize is a particular cereal crop which is more affected by variations in plant density than other members of the grass family, due to its low tillering ability, its monoecious floral organization and the presence of a brief flowering period. Different maize cultivars respond differently to K application under varying plant densities, due to different root/shoot ratio, growth rate, crowding stress tolerance, intra-specific competition between plants, K uptake and utilization. Maize cultivars have the ability to withstand high plant density due to more partitioning of assilimilates to shoot as compare to root, resulting in reduction of root/shoot ratio. K application reduces the percent of senescent stalks, lodging and increased crushing strength and rind thickness. There is general consensus that the soils of Pakistan have large capacity to provide K to crop under ordinary conditions, but the increase in the intensity of cropping, excessive use of the tube well water, introduction of the high yielding cultivars requiring high K, increasing use of N and P, could hasten the removal of K from the soils and imbalance the uptake of K in relation to other nutrients. Genotypic and crop species differences exist in response to soil and fertilizer K and non-yield traits such as stalk strength or product quality must be taken into account in K management decisions. K application not only increases grain yield, but also improves quality parameters. K application improves utilization of water, tolerance to drought through stomatal conductance, acceleration in photosynthesis process, water up take through roots. Its application improves leaf area, dry matter accumulation and other allometric parameters. K in combination with N has synergistic influence in uptake, translocation and utilization of nutrients for assimilation in growth and development of final grain yield and its contributing attributes. Normally K deficiency symptoms are usually not conspicuous although grain yield is abruptly decreased (called hidden hunger), but severe deficiency do express symptoms. It is therefore suggested that luxuriant application of K is inevitable for getting successful and maximum production from maize hybrids.
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