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Articles by Rengarajan Amirtharajan
Total Records ( 43 ) for Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  With the rabid development of the wireless technology, the gadgets that were once a luxury, have now become a necessity. The wireless technology was first developed for army utilisation. But later, because of the wide applications it had, it became a global obligation. But, today, with the advent of internet, the security of the wireless networks has been at a great stake. And also, the new generation of wireless network demands higher data requirements which is achieved by higher data bits per unit bandwidth because of a variety of multimedia applications, cost efficiency, spectral efficiency and security. In this study all of these challenging requirements are met by Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) along with steganography. It is an attractive and explorative area for the next and future generation of wireless multimedia applications. The major challenging issue in the design of an OFDM transceiver is its high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR). In this study, design of an OFDM system adopting Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) and Selected Mapping (SLM) techniques were concentrated. We analyse the system performance for various values of subcarriers and modulation schemes by computing Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) and analysing the Bit Error Rate (BER). PAPR value is low as the number of subcarriers has been increased. PTS outperforms SLM when complexity is considered and SLM is preferred when the redundant bits in the information are high and data embedding algorithm is included after modulation to ensure wireless security.
  Siva Janakiraman , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The emergence of modern digitization has resulted in versatility to eradicate the divergence among the forms of information travel flanked by the users. This paper presents a pliable approach for the erratic block size selection in an impulsive mode to boost the level of sophistication in stego algorithm. An ingrained formula for key exchange, suggested in the algorithm combines the benefit of cryptography adjoining with steganography. In contrast to the usual implementations using generic software and personal computers, the suggested software development has been intense on an embedded device LPC 2378 with the RISC architecture that includes extensive support for networking through on-chip modules supporting ethernet and CAN protocols. The focal plan of this work includes elimination of key exchange for data encryption and improving the security to a massive level without compromising the image quality and embedding capacity. This endeavor shows the aptness of embedded hardware for stego implementations using an image carrier that makes soaring demand on memory; the extremely inhibited resource of embedded devices. The efficiency of the algorithm in maintaining image quality has been measured using the metrics MSE and PSNR. The enhancement in performance of embedded software, in terms of speed and code size have been analyzed under sophisticated compiler tools from KEIL MDK and IAREW.
  R. Sridevi , P. Philominathan , Padmapriya Praveenkumar , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Background: The agenda of secret and secured communication is in the lead list of digital communication schemes. Image encryption plays a lead role in both spatial and transforms domains. Materials and Methods: In this study, logistic and standard coupled mapping were employed on a pre and post shuffled image to attain the higher-order cryptic image to convey information between private nodes. The initial conditions to the maps were generated by a trigonometric function, which will provide sternness against hackers. Results: To analyse the rigidness of the implemented algorithm, the standard metrics, that is the Unified Average Changing Intensity (UACI), Number of Pixels Change Rate (NPCR), entropy, correlation values, pixel distribution and histogram tests were estimated. The results were compared with the existing literature and found to be superior or comparable. Conclusion: First, the key space is 2256, which is considerably resistive to brute-force attack. Second, the obtained NPCR, entropy, correlation coefficient and UACI values of 99.6901, 7.99, -0.0015 and 33.44, respectively, prove that the proposed method resists statistical and differential attacks.
  K. Revathy , K. Thenmozhi , Padmapriya Praveenkumar and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Background: Cognitive Radio (CR) is an intelligent Software Defined Radio (SDR). The CR technology facilitates spectrum reuse and assuages spectrum chomp. Effective spectrum sensing confirms cognitive radio users resourcefully using the under-utilized frequency band without triggering destructive interference to primary users. Recently CR plays a vital role in the development of unguided communications system. Materials and Methods: This study examines the use of adaptive batch testing to find the spectrum holes of a specified bandwidth in a given Wide Band (WB) of interest and also designed a crisis based adaptive batch and Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) management in CR. Results: In place of testing and allocating a single slot for a user, this method can accommodate N number of users in a set of band during emergency conditions. The FIS is used to estimate the channel condition by analyzing the four parameters like signal power, speed, remoteness and effectiveness. Conclusion: The proposed system reduces the average sensing time, management time as a function of SNR. Number of users and the efficiency is also high when more number of users was managed at same time.
  M. Padmaa , Y. Venkataramani and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The study of communication security includes not just encryption but also traffic security, whose essence lies in "Information Hiding". The security of an image can be enhanced by cleverly embedding data without affecting its quality. This can be done by using information hiding techniques like steganography and cryptography. Combining steganography with cryptography becomes an essential facet for secure communication. In present study, enhanced image quality and security is obtained by consorting pixel indicator technique with PVD technique. Here, the raw data is first encrypted to get two different forms of message T1 and T2 using two distinct keys K1, K2 which is done by using encryption algorithms. As two encrypted messages can be embedded in this process, we have to first extract and then decrypt the message to retrieve the original data. The enhanced level of security is defined by the fact that even if one retrieves the message from the image it’s still incomprehensible to get the original message without the two keys K1 and K2.
  Siva Janakiraman , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  In the wake of cyber era, digital crime takes its shape in the schemes of modern warfare piercing existing security system without any collateral damage. The then existent cryptic army was either unable to stop the foes or had won a pyrrhic victory and thus evolved the war veteran, steganography that could withstand any destructive mechanism forced against it. Hence, in this study, three novel steganographic methods have been proposed to enhance the randomness of the mercurial data. All the three methods are implemented using the pixel indicator technology. Method one of the three uses the chosen pixel for guidance and as data channel for embedding. Method two takes a block of three pixels at a time where the first pixel acts as the steering channel while the remaining two become the data channel. Method three is further bifurcated; the first segment of this method involves the size definition within the first four pixels of the image and determination of that type of number i.e., even, prime or other. Depending on the type the channels red, blue or green are chosen as indicators, respectively. The second segment is where the size\value is checked for even parity and odd parity. Depending on its evenness or oddness the combination of data channel for embedding is arranged i.e., size is an even number with an odd parity red is the steering channel while the order of data channels are green and blue. The bifurcation and levels of selections increase the contingency of the embedment while retaining its reticence. Results confirm that the proposed methodology yield lesser error metrics while creating an efficacious channel to secure data transmission.
  Rengarajan Amirtharajan and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  Information technologies and communications have pervaded our homes and business places. No matter how well-organized and extensive the communication technology is there are always loop holes in the network and people who seek after the clandestine information to extract from these loop holes. The pandemic problem of security is still a raging problem as every solution compromises on one trait to heighten the other(s) according to the necessity of the hour. In this paper we suggest an algorithm where we have tried to retain all the three important banalities of secure communication: robustness, capacity and imperceptibility by using Haar Integer wavelet transform a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain method in tandem with a cryptic scheme i.e. the direct binary or inverted binary embedding of data. Experimental results that compute the MSE and PSNR show that this algorithm caters to the need of the hour by delivering the high capacity with good imperceptibility.
  Rengarajan Amirtharajan , Jiaohua Qin and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  In the current corporate scenario, data or information security is the most significant asset because loss of information will lead to financial and market loss which in-turn will be the end of business. Though, the security guards like cryptography, watermarking, steganography have armed on the electromagnetic pathway against hackers, the concern on data protection is growing in parallel with the up-to-the-minute electronic technology. In this review, the role, strength and weakness of steganography especially different random image steganography techniques in protecting the data have been analyzed and in addition how random techniques can be made smarter and effective have also been explored.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Improved Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and variable higher data rates will pave a way to a brighter future for the next generation broadband applications of wireless communication. The OFDM system tolerates robustness against the multipath effects encountered by the fading channels. Enhanced system is achieved by using Forward Error Correction (FEC) codes. The attrition of errors in signals will increase the reliability of the system. In this study, secret data has been embedded after encoding the data using Convolutional encoders and passed over OFDM system. At the receiver end, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) helps better BER. The signals are passed over an OFDM receiver and decoded using Viterbi decoders.
  Sundararaman Rajagopalan , Har Narayan Upadhyay , Swetha Varadarajan , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The growing demand to protect the confidential messages and documents paved way for the invent of information security techniques. Whatever, be the strength of security algorithms and standards, an equal amount or greater than that attempt is made to crack the information which employs an algorithm to make it invisible to anonymous. New techniques and algorithms will help a lot for strengthening the security of our information systems. Steganography is basically a science turned art to hide the payload with the help of a carrier. We propose a spatial domain image steganography technique which uses two aspects for information hiding-one being the pixel nibble difference and the other in the form of block rotation decided by a variable P’. This technique adds a technique to the group of information hiding techniques where block rotation can be decided by various parameters concerned with the carrier which may be audio, video or text.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The kinetics of higher data requirements in the upcoming wireless generation is engendered by the fact that the usage of high quality multimedia applications in the form of data, audio, SMS and video is on the rise. In order to meet the challenging needs of the increasing data rate requirements, the wireless system employs Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Security is the need of the hour in today’s wireless technological advancement. In this study, OFDM with Reed Solomon codes (RS) as Forward Error correction codes (FEC) has been proposed to achieve lower Bit Error Rate (BER) and data embedding has been carried out to ensure security in wireless communication. Further RS codes are used to restore the cover object.
  C. Lakshmi , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  In this study, implied an overture for acquainting Tamil Character which is handwritten. This refers the procedure of converting written Tamil font to printed one since it is a tedious to course the above mentioned owing to its deviated writing manner, dimension, angle of direction etc. Here, scanned images get pre-processed and subdivided into, first, paragraphs, then (paragraph) to lines, then (line) to words and finally (word) to separate glyph. This study coalesces structural plus categorization analysis and is determined to be extra proficient in support of outsized and composite sets. Recognition Efficiency is enhanced and this proposal generates finest outcomes apart from doing better than existing methods. Also this routine can be further extended to other Indian languages as well.
  Sundararaman Rajagopalan , Yamini Ravishankar , Har Narayan Upadhyay , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Steganography, a protected envelope for information systems is reaching new horizons at software as well as hardware level. Due to the number of benefits that result in using reconfigurable hardware like FPGA for stego system development, some attention is needed in performing the stego memory testing. While Self test methodologies adopted for memories require attention due to the extensive memory requirements, testing the secret carrier stego memory modules occupies the center stage due to its higher importance of data protection. Normally block RAMs inside FPGA can store the cover and stego images. With the hardware pseudorandom pattern generators, the memory testing can be done effectively. In this regard, the present work focuses on the implementation and analysis of various combined multiple LFSR based pseudorandom sequence generation schemes for Stego Memory self testing on Cyclone II EP2C20F484C7 FPGA. Analysis of the different schemes for their suitability to stego memory arena is an important objective of this work and also sequence distribution analysis has been carried out to verify the distribution of pseudorandom sequences for N clock cycles. The synthesis reports for all the four cases undertaken in this work have also been reported.
  Sundararaman Rajagopalan , K. Pravallika , R. Radha , Har Narayan Upadhyay , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The inventions and innovations in the multimedia communication have revolutionized the infotainment world. With the advancements in multimedia , there is a growing demand to use the image, audio, video and text ingredients for information protection. In the field of steganography, the cover to carry over the secret information has been an image in many of the reported works due to high payload carrying capacity. However audio steganography on hardware platform provides the user an option to use multicarrier steganography on common chip. Here we propose a method of steganography which has been implemented on Cyclone II FPGA EP2C20F484C7 which houses an architecture with LSB substitution of Huffman encoded secret message on select parts of digitized audio signal. The experimental results show that a SNR of 127.7 dB has been obtained for 100 bits payload with embedding process done on every 2000th memory location of 16-bit digitized audio signal stored in External SRAM.
  Siva Janakiraman , Jagannathan Chakravarthy , Badrinath Radhakrishnan , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Communication playing the key role of daily lives has created revolutions since the Stone Age. In this fast-paced technological world, the utilization of information has gained towering momentum. Furthermore, information while transmitted over the internet with the swift escalation in the mass media and digital communication technology, the requirement for impregnable covert channel arises especially when critical information has to be communed. Over the years, Information hiding techniques have evolved to conceal any critical data in cover files like images, audios and videos and thus, certifying the genuineness and secrecy of the transmitted data. Steganography is one such method where the very existence of the data in the cover image is hidden and thereby, provides for security by making the hidden data unconceivable. The cover file may include audio, video or image files. In this study, two methods have been proposed to embed image within an image with two and three layers of security, respectively. A decoder circuit is used in one of the layers to embed the data not only in the LSB bits but also in the other bits of the lower nibble. Moreover, two bits of data are embedded in a pixel by changing only one bit of the pixel. These methods show improved security without compromising on the PSNR and MSE values.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Stupendous advances in Digital Communication have brought about the advent of internet culture benefiting the people in many ways. Just as fire is a good servant, but a bad master, so is the case with internet. With internet, stealing and unauthorised usage of data remains unrestrained. In addition, use of high multimedia applications demands for higher data rates. To accommodate the challenging needs of higher data rate requirements, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) proves to be the propitious solution. Hacking over wireless environment can be staved off by incorporating the emerging information hiding techniques with OFDM system. This study analyses the performance of OFDM system using modulation schemes like Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK), Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and then the confidential information is embedded after interleaving and passed over AWGN channel. Interleaving serves two purposes primarily it reduces burst errors and it needs two different keys intact, one to stipulate the scrambling of the data bits and the other to identify the secret data embedding. It is observed from the simulation results that the BER of the system can be improved by rearranging the input data streams through interleaving, thereby reducing the random errors due to noisy wireless channel environment. The BER graph is simulated for various modulation schemes prior to embedding and after embedding the confidential information.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , R. Deepak , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  In the era of wireless communication, the World Wide Web is the brain child of all the new technological development. This digital world has speeded up the data transfer and communication speed a manifold, creating new goods and services all along. Along with the development of internet, developed ways of hacking, modifying and stealing it also increased. There is an increasing demand to augment the data rates and to provide greater fidelity. Thus, technology provides us the finesse for increasing robustness over fading channels. The most prominent solution for increased speed is OFDM. And the security issues can be taken care of by embedding confidential data after encoding the message using cyclic codes.
  Rengarajan Amirtharajan , M. Sai Krishna Karthik , L. Radhika and J.B.B. Rayappan
  Facebook is a networking site, which connects people all over the world, making the Earth a global village. This social networking giant was launched by Mark Zuckerberg and his friends. The website mainly aims at connecting people or helps them socialise and makes its revenue out of advertising. This paper mainly tries to tell what facebook is all about and concentrates on how it can be used for educational purposes. It also highlights few of the security problems faced by the users of facebook. This paper mainly tells about the student- teacher interaction, students’ council on facebook and how it will be useful to their education above and beyond portraying results of a FB opinion poll which can divulge and justify the creation of this study.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The prospects of the next generation wireless broadband applications will be enhanced by the features like improved Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and variable higher data rates. The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system offers better tolerance against multipath effects faced by fading channels. Forward Error Correction (FEC) codes meliorate the system performance. In this study, firstly the data is encoded using Convolution encoders with Puncture codes in OFDM system. Then, the secret message is embedded and passed through Rayleigh and Rician fading channels. The BER graph prior and after embedding the confidential data are compared and simulated using BPSK modulation scheme. The system is made more reliable by reducing the redundancy, errors in the signals and making it more secure and robust in fading environment.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Wireless communication is an incipient technique to increase portability, but is inept on grounds of security and capacity. Wireless communication coupled with multiple access techniques help in resolving these issues and aid in providing variable data rates. The security aspects can be palliated by using spread spectrum with information hiding mechanisms. This study analyses confidential data hiding using spread spectrum scheme added to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system adopting different modulation schemes. Performance analysis is done with and without confidential data embedding considering Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are compared and analysed with Multicarrier CDMA (MC CDMA) schemes using Bit Error Rate (BER) performance.
  L. Pradeep Raja , R. Balasubramanian , K. Parkavi Kathirvelu and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  This study presents a new Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) based stator oriented non-linear control of induction motor drive system using MATLAB/Simulink environment. The non-linear control is employed in the stator by making a small change in the variable transformation and this control technique will not affect the system dynamics and improves the performance in all four quadrants. This reduces size and cost of the induction motor drive system. The steady state and transient response of the drive system is observed in all the four quadrants and their torque and speed characteristics were studied. This non-linear control in this system is better compared to other systems. The motor drive is simulated in all four quadrants and their waveforms were plotted.
  Siva Janakiraman , K.V.Sai Krishna Kumar , R.Rohit Kumar Reddy , A. Srinivasulu , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  The day to day amplification on technology and the demand on shrinking the device sizes reflect in the diminution on memory sizes and constraints on device outlay. In the present times of mass communication with the swift escalating technology, there is a dire necessity for security on the information traversing between authorized individuals. All these factors invite the property of light weightiness and the focused security algorithms such as Hummingbird for devices with humiliated resources. This study present an efficient software implementation of modified Humming Bird algorithm on an 8-bit microcontroller with randomization on sub-key selection based on LFSR. We also do comparative analysis on performance in terms of memory foot print and execution time between our modified one and the original algorithm implementations. The obtained results make it evident that the proposed method raises the complexity significantly without hike in resource consumption and makes it more suitable to provide security in extremely constrained devices.
  Rengarajan Amirtharajan , Imaculate Rosaline , Rengaraja Swamy , Sai Pavan , R. Sridevi and J.B.B. Rayappan
  The use of information over internet and our dependence on the computing machines has drastically increased with the advancements in technology. As a result, the storage and transmission of the ever increasing volumes of data in an effective way has become a high priority issue. The very systems which are boon to us are also being misused by many to cause harm. Thus, security is a major issue as far as the information is concerned. Thus, it becomes the responsibility of the parties involved in secret communication to arrange for the necessary security, preventing the sniffing by rogue entities. Advancement in digital communication technology along with internet makes data transfer easy and vulnerable to interception and modification by sneakers. Cryptography and steganography are ways of encrypting and hiding data. While Cryptography hides the essence of the data under a cover, like an encrypted text or periodic noises in a digital signal, steganography hides the fact of data itself. The information is more secure when both these techniques are used together. That is, even if the hidden information is found out, it will be encrypted. In this paper, it is proposed to explore the cover generation method. It uses information as data on covers like Image-cover, Circuit-cover Graph-cover, Chess-cover and Questionnaire etc and does not produce noise. Thus, noiseless steganography (noistega) is a fruitful option for data transmission in secured manner.
  Sundararaman Rajagopalan , Pakalapati J.S. Prabhakar , Mucherla Sudheer Kumar , N.V.M. Nikhil , Har Narayan Upadhyay , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Information hiding as a field is extremely fast developing and one of the very few fields that derive its power from its inherent need for sophistication and complexity in its algorithms. Out of the ever growing list of information hiding methods, steganography has emerged as the front runner because of clandestine nature. Image steganography is the heart of steganography because of wide availability of images in local media, variable capacity and its ability to cloak the very existence of secret data in it. There are innumerable software methods available for steganography but there is a dearth of hardware implementations to serve this purpose. In this study, we have devised a FPGA implementation that randomises the volume of data embedded in each pixel, according to the same MSBs. This implementation also contains a novel method to check the integrity of the embedded data by providing a mechanism by which we can weed out any modifications in the secret data, to an extent that it can even pinpoint the exact pixel in which the change has occurred. This algorithm has been implemented on EP2C35F672C6 FPGA. The synthesis report and Timing analysis have also been discussed in this study.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  We live in an era where hacking and unauthorized access attempts to data are so common. There is a need to secure data before it is transmitted. Addition of overhead bits and modulation techniques decrease the capacity and increase the cost. Both the channel capacity and the cost to set up the communication system have to be optimal. So intimidating is a feature called multiple access used for this purpose. Multiple access also improves capacity by simultaneously transmitting large number of messages. There is very less or no interference between the signals since each of them is polarized orthogonally or encoded using different coding sequences or sent as bursts in different time slots. Particularly Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) makes it more difficult for the hacker to access the transmitted data. If the message is thrown to all the users only the intended receiver has the same coding sequence to decode it. So, others can’t access the message. Even if the message is detected, use of steganography makes it all the more difficult for the hacker to decode the message. This increases the security multifold. The aesthetic appeal of CDMA and steganography together has revolutionized the present world communication systems. In this study, the performance of CDMA is analysed by embedding confidential information at three levels namely after interleaving, spreading and modulator. The Bit Error Rate (BER) performance comparison graphs with and without information hiding at three levels are analysed using BPSK, QPSK and QAM schemes.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , G.S. Hemalatha , Bharathsimha Reddy , K. Thenmozhi , J.B.B. Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  The prerequisite of internet and multimedia communication in the present wireless age is impregnability and higher data rata. In this study, a pragmatic approach was accomplished by the Simulink model of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) using image steganography incorporating BPSK and QPSK modulation schemes. To contemplate the distortion in the image, the discerning distortion metrics called as Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) were computed. The BER of OFDM system was also analysed.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , P. Rajalakshmi , G.U. Priyanga , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Security has become the most indispensible part of any form of communication. There are different ways through which it is brought about, out of which one of the efficient implementation through steganography and encryption. Steganography conceals the existence of a secret message throughout the communication thereby providing enhanced security. In this study, a methodology has been proposed to perform encryption on an image with the help of Secret Steganography Code for Embedding (SSCE) code. A mapping technique has been proposed to combine quantum truth table and LSB based embedding. The SSCE has been employed to provide encryption, followed by quantum table before embedding the secret data. The proposed methodology supports both images and text as cover as well as secret data. In the proposed scheme, embedding has been included with encryption to provide security multifold. The implementation was carried out using Visual Basic. NET and results are presented.
  V. Thanikaiselvan , P. Arulmozhivarman , Siddhanta Chakrabarty , Ashutosh Agarwa1 , S. Subashanthini and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Steganography is the technique of hiding information inside other information. It provides data security. Image steganography can be implemented in both, the spatial and transform domain. In this study, transform domain steganography has been adopted. A cover image is transformed to the frequency domain using Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) and a secret image is embedded in it using Least Significant Bit (LSB) substitution. The secret data is embedded only in high frequency sub-bands of the frequency domain transform of the cover image. Both adaptive and non-adaptive embedding techniques are employed and the results are compared. Also, random traversing for embedding the secret data is implemented for higher security. Haar and (5/3) IWT based algorithms are used. The Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) values and payload capacity are obtained and compared for above algorithms.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , K. Thenmozhi , John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Brobdingnagian may be the precise word for the usage of internet and advanced expertise in the globe in our day. Indeed, all sorts of this online communication go hand in hand with the so called major apprehension, information security. Since all kinds of digital files play an imperative role in internet operation, it is indispensable to defend the key features of private communication namely, seclusion, uprightness and legitimacy. This threat, in a roundabout way, has led to the breakthrough of information security rationales. Striking among these are Cryptography and Steganography, primordial skills pursued for the sake of secret sharing. The startling thing is that with the fruition of technology, these are giving prolific outcomes even now. Cryptography possesses such a litheness that its blend, in the company of other fields of study, facilitates offer much more options to explore security issues. This study envisions an inimitable approach to security in the context of encryption and embedding incorporating shuffling, chaotic equations in conjunction with Blowfish encryption algorithm. Here, encryption is performed on images followed by embedding secret data. The latter is done not literally but indirectly. This pitch endows with randomness and security with all the persuasive traits of encryption. Validation is given in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Relative Entropy (RE), entropy and correlation values. Experimental results are illustrated to vindicate the performance of this objective.
  Veeramuthu Venkatesh , Pethuru Raj , V. Vaithiyanathan and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  In this study, a new approach for deriving right and relevant context information was introduced by exposing all kinds of disparate and distributed devices as RESTful services and a variety of minuscule sensors as event-emitters. We have leveraged the concept of Device Service Bus (DSB) for capturing and translating service messages from RESTful services to the target data fusion engine and similarly used Esper, the open source event processing engine, to capture streams of event messages from sensors. All the data embodied in these messages are extracted and interpreted by the data fusion engine (a policy-oriented data interpretation and dissemination software module) in order to emerge with actionable insights. The context-awareness algorithm is formalized and presented in this study. Finally, a new mathematical model for calculating the time complexity of the context-awareness algorithm was come out.
  K. Parkavi Kathirvelu , R. Balasubramanian and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Smart grid system is a convoluted system in order to provide profound changes in the current grid system. This is fully automated grid utilizes latest information, communication techniques and internet which is truly interconnected and highly open to cyber attacks. Any attack in one location easily propagates through the network and can have immediate impact over wide area network. Without ample security implementation, a smart grid leads to serious outcome such as instability of the grid, malfunctioning of devices, theft in user information and fraud in consumer’s energy consumption data. This work briefs the smart grid technologies, key factors, types of attacks and mainly the authentication schemes used to minimize the attacks.
  Sundararaman Rajagopalan , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , Har Narayan Upadhyay and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  Little brooks make great rivers-says a proverb. Information science involves not only the efforts made for gathering, acquiring or collecting the data that corresponds to the information but also contains the ways to save it, protect it and preserve it. The meaning of the proverb however stresses upon how to protect and secure information, as a small leakage will pave way for entire loss of information which should be protected. True, there have been various methods, approaches and algorithms proposed in the past and will emerge in future too in the areas of secure information transmission. Cryptography and steganography have been primary sources for information security. The bird’s eye view on the literature pertaining to the above mentioned two giants of information security spots a number of algorithms developed on both software as well as hardware platforms. This study does the survey from the literature on different cryptographic and image steganographic methods implemented on a reconfigurable hardware like FPGAs in the past. The analysis of various methods proposed earlier is also an important objective of this study.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has come to the rescue of the bandwidth constraint owing to the burgeoning digital multimedia applications. The serial data is made parallel and transmitted over multiple orthogonal frequencies with bandwidth of each subcarrier considerably lesser than the coherence bandwidth of the channel. This study aims to review the present state of art in Error Correcting Codes (ECC) in OFDM, generated by methods like Convolutional Encoding, using Reed-Solomon Codes and Turbo codes. Furthermore the deployment of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), to train the system for higher fault tolerance in OFDM is detailed.
  Rengarajan Amirtharajan and John Bosco Balagurn Rayappan
  Computers have invaded all premises of the human world, starting from a grocery store to a missile launching center. Because of the omnipresence of computers, it becomes more and more difficult everyday to secure the confidential information from misuse. The fairly common technique of cryptography has been proved inadequate in recent years. Steganography, a contemporary yet an age-old technique to hide secret data into an unsuspected cover media like an image, thereby preventing the recognition of the very presence of secret data, is an alternative. In this study, an improved image steganographic approach is proposed. This method reduces the mean square error (MSE) by localizing the error-reduction process to every row. The error reduction is performed by selective embedding of the actual secret, its binary complement, gray-coded version or inverted gray-coded version. Of the four versions, the version giving the least MSE is embedded on a row-by-row basis. This method reduces the MSE by a factor of 1.8 and boosts the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) by a 0.25 db and considerably increases the security.
  R. Balasubramanian , K. Parkavi Karthirvelu , N. Divya , Rengarajan Amirtharajan and S. Palani
  Z source converter is the improved version of Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) which utilizes shoot through state of the switches and can be operated in both buck and boost mode of operation. The major drawbacks of Z Source Converter (ZSC) is the high cost, more space and not suitable for lower power applications. In order to overcome these disadvantages, Switched Boost Converter (SBC) is proposed. The proposed converter overcomes the limitations of the conventional ZSC such as lower cost, compact space and less use of passive components. This feature of SBC makes it appropriate for micro grid applications. In this study, SBC is designed for micro grid applications with Proportional-integral controller as well as fuzzy logic controller and total harmonic distortions are compared.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and J.B.B. Rayappan
  Information security is a prime concern especially when it comes to business and corporate sectors where off the record information should be given utmost importance. Very cooperative especially to business enterprise, modern day expertise has contributed a lot towards sharing a surreptitious data. The field of wireless communication has surmounted many hurdles in the past few years and is now finally capable of supporting higher data rates thanks to the development of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). It is the most ideal format for broadband communication to meet its need for higher data rates. This study further augment the usefulness of OFDM communication by making it secure to avert data piracy. This study propose an idea of embedding the secret message at the real part of Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) output of OFDM system and performance of the system is examined for various modulations. Thus, this study is a conjunction of wireless and data security which serves the purpose of secret sharing and can be applicable and suitable to entrepreneurial activities.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , R. Sai Janani , K. Thenmozhi and J.B.B. Rayappan
  There are numerous criteria in running an enterprise. Apart from trading goods and services, or may be both to clients, emphasis should be laid on maintaining the business model that comprises of maintenance of intellectual properties and decisive testimonials as well. In this regard, up to date technological proficiencies be of great assist as everything is now digital and online. Though sound different, technology and administrative terms go hand in hand. Of all one domain that catch the attention instantly is secret sharing and secret communication. This study is one such work. Digital multimedia applications, coming into the limelight in the recent years have impacted the bandwidth requirements and caused an ever soaring demand for broadband wireless application. On the other hand, wireless communication that uses fixed modulation fails to satisfy the needs as its efficiency is stultified by the fading channels. This stydy proposes the adaptive modulation scheme in OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) system to counteract fading in the transmission power and the transfer function of frequency selective channel. The prime aim is to maximise the total capacity and transmit power without vitiating the quality of service at the receiver. It can be achieved by making the system smart and subsume some intelligence into it. We make the system adapt itself to the channel conditions and choose the well-suited service at that instant. Simulation results have made it clear that adaptive modulation in OFDM system offers the choice of modulation and FEC (Forward Error Control Codes) with variable rates. The essence of adaptation is maintained even while embedding in wireless transmission to serve the security purposes. Bit Error Rate (BER) graph plotted prior to embedding is analyzed and compared with the one plotted for embedded data.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and J.B.B. Rayappan
  This study proposes Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), endorsed by encryption and concatenated Error Correction Codes (ECC). OFDM, as the name suggests exploits the carriers’ orthogonality properties and Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) caters to the bandwidth requirements for the broadband applications. To reduce the errors due to the channel noise conditions, concatenated codes utilizing Reed Solomon (RS) codes and convolutional codes are used. Its encoded output is encrypted using the chaotic means to espouse discretion before passing through OFDM channel. Error performance of the scheme is analysed using Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. Comparative graphs are plotted for the performance of Bit Error Rate (BER) on different modulation schemes with different inner and outer code rates. For performance measurements, metrics like BER and Correlation values are computed.
  Padmapriya Praveenkumar , Rengarajan Amirtharajan , K. Thenmozhi and J.B.B. Rayappan
  Wireless communication with its enhanced efficiency, greater flexibility, mobility and reduced cost has encompassed human needs and sophistications to a greater extent. Several techniques adopted in the wireless standards solely contribute to its heightened demand. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one such technique adopted to provide robust and high speed networks by countenancing signal overlap. The data transmission over wireless, in general, is unsecure and open to the hands of the hackers. A method has to be devised to uniquely identify the copyright owner of the data and prevent the misuse of it. However, on the negative side, the hackers are on par with the experts in this field to combat against piracy. This necessitates the introduction of a method to impart security to the data being transmitted. This study embeds secret data bits in punctured convolutional encoder’s output which are then encrypted using Chaotic means to uphold discretion and then traversed through OFDM system. Integrity is made certain by four-level encryption of secret bits and is stored as key in Cyclic Prefix’s (CP) output. Comparison graphs for the performance of Bit Error Rate (BER) are plotted for different modulation schemes with different rates of punctured convolutional codes. These plots are for puncture patterns with convolutional encoder before and after infixing the secret data. Widespread metrics for performance measurement like BER and correlation values are computed. This estimation reveals the security and arbitrariness of data encryption both with and without embedding the secret.
  K. Arthishri , R. Balasubramanian , Parkavi Kathirvelu , Sishaj P. Simon and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  This study presents an analysis of neural network scheme for tracking Maximum Power Point (MPP) of the PV panel. The performance in terms of energy conversion efficiency is compared with the most commonly used P and O algorithm. The method used for MPP Tracking (MPPT) is tuned for giving its best efficiency using a planned calibration procedure. The non linearity of the PV panel is replicated considering the mathematical equations of the solar cell. MATLAB/Simulink is used to simulate the PV panel model along with a conventional DC-DC boost converter for MPPT.
  R. Balasubramanian , K. Parkavi Kathirvelu , K. Sathishkumar , Rengarajan Amirtharajan and S. Palani
  This study proposes a Current Source Inverter (CSI) consists of double-tuned resonant circuit at the source side for boosting the input voltage with low Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) which may suitable for microgrid applications. This proposed current source double-tuned inverter overcomes the drawbacks of conventional CSI by reducing the losses and space. Harmonics at the DC side input voltage is attenuated by the construction of double tuned circuit. The double tuned CSI with different control topologies are designed and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink.
  Balakrishnan Ramalingam , Rengarajan Amirtharajan and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
  Information trouncing implants the secret info within a cover file making the former imperceptible. This study suggests an unexampled steganography construct to embed encrypted message bit in a (digital) color image taking up Linear Congruential Generator (LCC) for producing the arbitrary plot in support of pixel preference and elementary Least Significant Bit (LSB) routine for data infixing. This proposal also witnesses optimum embedding competence along with minimum computation complexness and superior image excellence. In order to prove the complexness and superiority of the proposed algorithm, Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) of the stego image has become calculated and results are reported. The proposed algorithm was implemented in ALTERA cyclone ii FPGA for which design and performance results are presented in the study.
  Sivanandam Venkatesh , K. Ramkumar and Rengarajan Amirtharajan
  Humidity control plays significant role in various industries to get desired product output. An experiment was conducted in the laboratory scale to model a humidity process and to control the same. Open loop test was conducted for the humidity process by introducing the step change and the relative humidity of the exit air was measured. The data was best matched with first order process with time delay. Proportional Integral (PI) controllers based on Ziegler Nichols (ZN), Direct Synthesis (DS) and Internal Model Control (IMC) methods were simulated in MATLAB environment and the time domain specifications showed better performance for IMC and DS based PI controllers.
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