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Articles by Rekha Khandia
Total Records ( 7 ) for Rekha Khandia
  Rekha Khandia , Sandeep Bhatia , Kh. Victoria Chanu , Richa Sood and Kuldeep Dhama
  Anthrax is a zoonotic disease and its lethality is due to two secreted exotoxins; lethal toxin and edema toxin. The receptor for anthrax toxin is called Anthrax Toxin Receptor (ATR). Two distinct cellular Anthrax toxin receptors, ANTXR1 (also known as tumour endothelial marker 8, TEM8) and ANTXR2 (also known as capillary morphogenesis protein 2, CMG2) have been identified. TEM8 and CMG2 both are ubiquitous in nature. Apart from their function as anthrax toxin receptor, their ubiquitous presence is suggestive of their physiological role. TEM8 is preferentially expressed in blood vessel of tumours and in vasculature, indicating its probable role during angiogenesis and regulation of neovasculature. CMG2 is present in capillary cells and is associated with capillary morphogenesis. Both the TEM8 and CMG2 are present in different isoforms, share homology in amino acid residues and apart from their role in angiogenesis regulation, are also involved in interaction with extracellular matrix. Mutation in TEM8 result in a condition appeared to alter physical characters in form of growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia and progressive visual impairment known as GAPO syndrome. Mutation in CMG2 result in autosomal recessive disorder in humans called Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome (HFS) and Infantile Systemic Hyalinosis (ISH). Because of the role in physiological functions and participation as toxin receptor, these receptors could be target for several curative therapies both for the anthrax disease as well as for receptor associated physiological disorders. This review presents a detailed insight into isoforms, functions, diseases and therapeutic implications of anthrax toxin receptors.
  Rekha Khandia , Pratibha Vishwakarma , Abhinav Dwivedi , Anshumala Kujur , Kuldeep Dhama and Ashok Munjal
  Objective: Angiogenesis plays critical and essential role in various physiological processes of animals and humans. Present study reports the potential angiogenic modulatory effects of the two different molybdenum salts [molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) and sodium molybdate dihydrate (Na2MoO4.2H2O)] on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs. Methodology: The three groups of the embryonated chicken eggs (1 control and 2 treated groups) were taken and 200 μL of 0.5 M of each of MoO3 and Na2MoO4.2H2O were directly introduced on to the CAM. The resealed eggs were incubated for 72 h in a humid incubator chamber at 37±1°C. Then the eggs were opened to observe the gross and histopathological alterations for angiogenesis modulation. Results: Gross examination revealed reduced number of secondary and tertiary blood vessels in MoO3 treated group, while Na2MoO4.2H2O treated group showed reduction in number of blood vessels with occasional haemorrhages. Histopathological analysis indicated pro-angiogenic effect of MoO3, with presence of numerous mesodermal blood vessels with normal CAM tissue architecture. However, Chorionic Ectoderm (CE) was absent at few places, with intact CE at most places, indicating requirement of critical dose optimization. The Na2MoO4.2H2O was observed as anti-angiogenic, causing inflammation in CAM tissue with hemorrhage and thus can’t be used for therapeutics. Conclusion: The pro-angiogenic properties of MoO3 can be explored to treat ailments related to insufficient angiogenesis like coronary artery disease, chronic wounds, stroke and myocardial infarction. However, to avoid any kind of side effects, further qualitative and quantitative analysis and critical dose determination is required before going for clinical trials.
  Rekha Khandia , Ashok Munjal and Kuldeep Dhama
  Zika virus (ZIKV), is a member of the Flaviviridae family and cause congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome (GBS). The fetus of the mothers infected with ZIKV during first trimester are suffered from severe neurological damage like change of head shape and circumference celled microcephaly, convoluted scalp, deformed joints and vision and hearing loss. Its capability to infect fetus caused Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The information related to ZIKV infecting pregnant women and safe drugs were retrieved from the authentic published resources available on Medline, Pubmed, Pubmed Central, Science Direct and other scientific databases. The retrieved information has been compiled and analyzed. Microcephaly is a rare paediatric condition, implicated with severe consequences on fetus. The consequences of ZIKV infection to the fetus, statistical analysis summarizing association of microcephaly with ZIKV infection with other teratogenic congenital disease manifestations like ZIKV infection and about the therapies which can work for fetus and pregnant women include the use of chloroquine, amodiaquine, sofosbuvir, macrolide antibiotic azithromycin, niclosamide, albendazole/mebendazole, palonosetron and use of convalescent serum. Present review explains techniques of virus detection in fetus. Detailed case study analysis of affected fetus and the mechanism by which virus cause damage to the tissues and the target of fetus might be helpful in future to prevent the detrimental effects of the virus.
  Muhammad Saeed , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Muhammad Naveed , Muhammad Asif Arain , Muhammad Arif , Rab Nawaz Soomro , MohibUllah Kakar , Robina Manzoor , Ruchi Tiwari , Rekha Khandia , Ashok Munjal , Kumaragurubaran Karthik , Kuldeep Dhama , Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal and Chao Sun
  Green tea is an important herb and its products are extensively used in the traditional Chinese medicinal system through various formulations. Several reports have revealed its beneficial usage and medicinal aspects for various ailments. Consumption of green tea has gained special attention and popularity in various sectors of the modern era of changing lifestyle. This review aimed to extend the current knowledge on the modes of action and beneficial applications of green tea in humans and animals for safeguarding different health issues. The nutritional, immunological, pharmacological and physiological functionalities of green tea are because of the available bioactive components like caffeine, L-theanine, polyphenols/flavonoids and others. It possesses multi-beneficial potential in treating and preventing various disorders of animals and humans, as well as promoting animal (dairy, piggery and goatry) and poultry industry. The present review provides insights on the modes of action and beneficial applications of green tea, which will be useful for nutritionists, pharmacists, physiologists, researchers, veterinarians and animal and poultry producers. Future research emphasis and promotional avenues are needed to explore its potential therapeutic applications for designing appropriate pharmaceuticals, complementary medicines and effective drugs to popularize and propagate its multidimensional health benefits.
  Rekha Khandia , Ashok Munjal , Arvind Kumar , Gaurav Singh , Kumaragurubaran Karthik and Kuldeep Dhama
  The intrinsic property of Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPP) is to deliver various molecules including nucleic acids, large plasmids, therapeutic drugs, imaging molecules, liposomes, nano-molecules to various cell and tissues, which indicates about the potential of CPP as therapeutic vehicle molecules. These are easy to prepare, well characterized, versatile and have ability to link with bioactive cargo through covalent and non-covalent bonds. The interaction between cargo and CPP is highly dependent on physiochemical properties of CPP including size, pH and presence of basic residues in the carrier peptide. Primary mechanism of transport of CPP is endocytosis; however, evidences of endocytosis independent mechanisms including carpet model, inverted micelle model, barrel stave pore model and toroidal pore model are also present. Though, the natural CPP are often non- selective and passive, these may be tuned to become specific and targeted by conjugating them with functional groups and chemicals. In fact several natural CPPs such as penetratin, Tat, polyarginies etc have been modified to achieve maximum penetration and desired characters. Linear CPPs may be brought into multi-branched topology to give dendrimeric structures having more cell penetrating capacity, lower toxicity and hemolysis and higher serum stability. Site-specific targeting of CPP might be helpful in achieving several goals including enhancement in protein expression, gene silencing, formation of pleuripotent cells, reduction in inflammation and apoptosis, trans-epithelial transport, neuroprotection, ischemia treatment, treating insulin disorders, delivery of nucleic acids and agricultural pest control. The present review encompasses the detailed information regarding different modes of entry of CPP inside the cells, designing and classes of such peptides, along with theirs versatile therapeutic applications.
  Ashok Munjal , Rekha Khandia , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Kumaragurubaran Karthik and Kuldeep Dhama
  The recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections has changed the ZIKV status from a very mild self-limiting febrile virus to a highly pathogenic virus causing visual impairment, autoimmune response against myelin layer and microcephaly in affected fetus. The serious social impact on society has drawn the attention of the researchers globally. The search for an effective vaccine against ZIKV is on the way. Several researches as well as commercial organizations are indulged in developing vaccine for prophylactic and treatment purposes. In the present review, various vaccine strategies have been described including inactivated, attenuated, DNA, subunit, recombinant viral vectored and nucleic acid based vaccines. The vaccines developed should be clinically tested in animal models, which are susceptible for ZIKV infection like Stat2-/- mice, A129 (IFNAR-/-) Mice, Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) mice or Rhesus macaques. Efficacy of each vaccination strategy is required to be meticulously evaluated. The use of vaccinomics could also help to discover appropriate vaccine candidate to induce the effective immune response. DNA and subunit vaccines may not be that much beneficial in endemic areas due to poor immunogenic potential; however, by adjuvanting or using specific devise to deliver DNA vaccine construct, efficacy may be improved. Investigations exploring the cross reaction between the already existing immunity and immunity against newly developed vaccines would be of interest and useful for researchers. Further, researches should target whether vaccines and/or antibodies against ZIKV can induce Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE) resulting in subsequent enhancement of flavivirus infection. There are utmost requirements of sufficient resources in terms of infrastructure, funding, manpower, along with producing effective and safe ZIKV vaccine in commercial basis.
  Rekha Khandia , Abhinav Dwivedi , Akanksha Sahu , Pratibha Vishwakarma , Arvind Kumar , Kuldeep Dhama and Ashok Munjal
  Background and Objective: Angiogenesis (neovascularization) is an important process of forming new blood vessels, essential for embryonic development, reproduction, wound repair and growth. Present study reports the plausible angiogenic modulatory effects of the cadmium chloride (CdCl2). Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic substance, which have many inhibitory effects but also medicinally important. There are several toxic materials which in low quantity can be used in therapeutic aspects. Keeping in view, the effects of CdCl2 salt were investigated on the process of angiogenesis in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model by assessing gross and histopathological alterations. Materials and Methods: The two groups of the embryonated chicken eggs (10 in each group, 1 control and 1 treated group) were taken and 200 μL of 0.5 M of CdCl2 was directly introduced on to the CAM. The resealed eggs were incubated for 72 h in a humid incubator chamber at 37±1°C. Then the eggs were opened to observe the gross and histopathological alterations for angiogenesis modulation. Results: Gross examination of CAM revealed the reduction in the number of secondary and tertiary blood vessels amongst CdCl2 treated group. Histopathological analysis revealed anti-angiogenic effects of CdCl2 due to the less number of blood vessels and presence of breached mesodermal blood vessels, out of which RBCs were oozing out. Occasional abnormal thickening and accumulation of densely arranged cells at chorionic and allantoic sides was also observed. Conclusion: The anti-angiogenic properties of CdCl2 can be explored in the therapeutics of cancer and tumor related disorders. However, to avoid any kind of side effects, further qualitative, quantitative analysis and critical dose determination is required before going for clinical trials. Present investigations revealed the anti-angiogenic effect of cadmium chloride salt on chicken chorioallantoic membrane.
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