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Articles by Razak Wahab
Total Records ( 12 ) for Razak Wahab
  Razak Wahab , Janshah Moktar , Mahmud Sudin and Hashim W. Samsi
  Strength properties of preservative treated two-year-old and four-year-old Gigantochloa scortechinii Gamble were evaluated. The preservatives used in the study were Ammonium Copper-Quaternary (ACQ), Copper Chrome Arsenic (CCA) and Borax Boric Acid (BBA) at 2 and 4% concentrations using vacuum pressure impregnation process. It was found that there was an overall strength reduction in the treated bamboo immediately after treatment. The strength reduction ranged from 4.9 to 7.6% for ACQ, 5.0 to 7.2% for BBA and 5.9 to 7.9% for CCA treated bamboo. The reduction in strength was found to be dependent on the type of preservatives applied, concentration used and their retention in the bamboo.
  Affendy Hassan , Razak Wahab , Mohamad Azani Alias and Rafidah Md. Salim
  Studies on the growth performance on five selected indigenous trees species of Azadirachta excelsa, Cinnamomum iners, Hopea pubescens, Intsia palembanica and Shorea leprosula under open area planting technique on degraded forest area were carried out in Pasoh Forest Reserve Area, Negeri Sembilan. Evaluation on the growth and survival of these species were performed nine years after planting. An experimental design of Randomized Complete Block Design was adapted. The result shows that the survival rate of species planted ranged from 20.7 to 74.1% with C. iners attaining the highest survival rate followed by A. excelsa and the lowest was recorded by S. leprosula. A. excelsa exhibited the highest growth increment in terms of diameter at breast height (DBH) and height followed by S. leprosula and the lowest was recorded for I. palembanica. This indicates that some indigenous species can be adapted to rehabilitate degraded forestland.
  Razak Wahab , Hashim W. Samsi , Othman Sulaiman , Rafidah Salim and Rokiah Hashim
  The suitability of using an eco-friendly oil curing process was investigated on cultivated Bambusa vulgaris bamboo in order to prolong their service life span. B. vulgaris was chosen as it is a type of bamboo species that is easy to cultivate and has good physical as well as mechanical properties. Matured bamboo culms of 4 year-old from internodes 5, 6 and 7 in green and air-dried conditions were heat treated. The heat treatment process used palm oil as the heating medium at temperatures of 140, 180 and 220°C for durations of 30, 60 and 90 min. The air-dried culms exhibited overall higher physical, strength and durability properties than the green and untreated culms. The Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) values of heat treated bamboo in bending was reduced by 13 to 42% in green and by 3 to 29% in air-dried conditions. The compression strength were reduced by 18 to 33% in green and by 14 to 27% in air-dried ones. The heat treated bamboo lost from 5 to 34% of their initial weight after undergoing 12 months of ground-contact tests for both green and air-dried conditions.
  Razak Wahab , Azmy Hj. Mohamed , Othman Sulaiman and Hashim W. Samsi
  Razak Wahab , Janshah Moktar , Mahmud Sudin and Hashim W. Samsi
  Razak Wahab , Mahmud Sudin and Hashim W. Samsi
  The development of fungal colonization and decay in the culms of a tropical bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii, through ground contact tests in a tropical soil were described. Observations were made using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Both untreated and samples treated with either Borax-Boric Acid mixture (BBA) Ammoniacal Copper Quaternary (ACQ) ammonium compound or Copper-Chrome-arsenic (CCA) were investigated. Over 24-months of exposure, untreated and ineffectively treated culms exhibited extensive degradation and colonisation of all tissues (ground tissue parenchyma, fibers and vascular elements) by fungi. Fungal colonists were observed in the cell lumina, the degraded cell walls and in the intercellular spaces. The morphology of decay was a characteristic of degradation by white and soft rot fungi and occasionally, was accompanied by bacterial attack. In contrast, the tissues of culms that had received effective preservative treatments had restricted hyphal colonisation with infrequent hypal invasion into cell via pits; or without cell wall degradation.
  Razak Wahab , Hashim W. Samsi , Aminuddin Mohamad , Othman Sulaiman and Rafidah Salim
  Oil palm trunks found in abundant and considered as an agriculture waste were investigated as alternative to dimensional wood. The trunks are of no economic importance in their natural form. However, once converted into the form of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) their properties improved tremendously. This study highlighted properties of the LVL made from oil palm trunks at four different positions comprising two portions height and two cross-sectional zones. These LVL have shown to behave differently when tested for their physical, mechanical and glue delaminating properties. Testing on all the LVL specimens were done in accordance with the Japanese Agricultural Standard SE-11, 2003.
  Razak Wahab , Othman Sulaiman , Khairunnisaa Abd. Rasid and Hashim W. Samsi
  Four age-groups of rattans comprising 8, 12, 18 and 24 year-old culms at portions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 from the base were used in this study. The rattans were harvested from two rubber plantation estates in Terengganu and Pahang that possess similar soil characteristics and properties. Generally, the results of the study indicate that rattans with higher basic density possess higher compression and bending strength compares to those with lower values. The lower part of the rattans shows to have higher basic density compare to higher part. The 18 and 24 year old rattans shows to have higher basic density compare to the 8 and 12 year-old. The 18 and 24 year old rattans indicate to have 7 to 8 times higher strength compares to younger rattans. It can be concluded that the cultivated rattans of age 18 and above possessed the mechanical characteristics that makes them suitable for utilization.
  Razak Wahab , Aminuddin Mohamad , Hashim W. Samsi , Awang Ahmad Mohd Yunus and Janshah Moktar
  Razak Wahab , Siti Marlia Mohd Dom , Mohd Tamizi Mustafa , Hashim W. Samsi , Sukhairi Mat Rasat and Izyan Khalid
  Properties of composite boards made from oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) at different density and resin content were investigated. The EFB was refined using fiber cutter and particle's crusher. Hardeners and wax were added at 1 and 3% during the mixing process. Boards of densities 500, 600 and 700 kg m–3 were produced with resin urea formaldehyde at 10, 12 and 14%, respectively. The boards were stored in a conditioning chamber set at 20±2°C and 65% relative humidity before undergoing subsequent testing. Testing procedure was done in accordance with EN Standard and specifications. The results indicated increases across the board physical and mechanical properties. The highest MOR and MOE value achieved in this study were 22.91 and 2059.56 N mm–2. Highest value for internal bonding was 0.98 N mm–2, meanwhile for edge and face screw withdrawal, 467.47 and 512.37 N mm–2. Boards with 700 g cm–3 density and 14% resin content met all the requirement needed according to standard exercised. Board with the lowest performance was observed using microscopy machine to study the resin-fiber bonding property. Resin and fiber in the board intacted closely but there were voids appeared at the cross-section of the board 500 g cm–3 density with 10% resin content, suggesting moisture had penetrated into the board via the open spaces and attacked the linkages existed, thus cause the board to have a low property. Thermogravimetric analysis was done to study the thermal stability of the boards manufactured. The maximum rate of decomposition for the OPEFB boards occurred at 380.83°C.
  Razak Wahab , Hashim W. Samsi , Mohd Tamizi Mustafa , Mazlan Mohamed , Mohd Sukhairi Mat Rasat and Madihan Yusof
  The physical, mechanical and morphological properties of bio-composite from a mixture of Oil Palm Fronds (OPF) and Kenaf Bast Fibers (KBF) are investigated. Urea formaldehyde resin used in cementing the mixtures together. The OPF and KBF were mixed at five different ratios. Testing for the physical and mechanical properties made by the European EN standards. Testing on the physical properties includes the density, water absorption, thickness swelling and wettability. Mechanical testing includes static bending for modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, besides internal bonding of the boards, revealed the enhanced values after increasing the resin content. The morphological studies were conducted using micrograph’s structures obtained by scanning electron microscope used in determining the distribution of the resin in the boards. The overall results showed that boards with 100% OPF and 50:50% (OPF:KBF) at 14% of resin content exhibited the highest properties compared to the other boards.
  Razak Wahab , Mahmud Sudin , Tamizi Mustapa and Awang Ahmad Mohd Yunus
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