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Articles by Ravi Kumar Gandham
Total Records ( 2 ) for Ravi Kumar Gandham
  Rakesh Kumar , Shailesh Kumar Patel , B.V. Rami Reddy , Mukesh Bhatt , K. Karthik , Ravi Kumar Gandham , Yashpal Singh Malik and Kuldeep Dhama
  The normal cell has its own homeostatic mechanism. A slight deviation in this mechanism leads firstly to an adaptive response in the form of hypertrophy, atrophy etc. But sometimes when adaptive response exceeds a limit also culminates to cell injury which ultimately leads to cell death. Irreversible form of cell injury leads to cell death in the form of necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy and by other alternative ways of necroptosis, anoikis, entosis and cornification. Necrosis and apoptosis are main mechanisms of cell death in mammalian cells. Necrosis is accidental, uncontrolled and un-programmed cell death which leads to cellular swelling, pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, disruption of cell membrane and inflammation. Apoptosis is a programmed and energy dependent pathophysiological phenomenon leading to cellular shrinkage but no cell membrane rupture and no inflammatory response. Apoptosis can be mediated by extrinsic, intrinsic and perforin/granzyme pathways, leading to activation of execution caspases and finally protein cleavage, cross linking and DNA-fragmentation. Extrinsic pathway involve ligand (FasL, TNFα) and receptors (FasR, TNFR) interaction which bind to adapter proteins Fas Associated Death Domain (FADD) and TNFα Receptor Associated Death Domain (TRADD) with activation of initiator caspases-8. Intrinsic pathway involves cytochrome c release along with pro-apoptotic proteins and inhibits anti-apoptotic proteins, leads to cytochrome c interaction with Apaf-1, thus activation of pro-caspase-9. Overall, cell death have clarified many aspects of this fundamental process and brought to the attention of scientists its role in a large number of different diseases. The present review describes apoptosis and other alternate mechanisms of cell death with biomedical and veterinary perspectives.
  Lakshman Santra , Saurabh Gupta , Ajay K. Singh , Amit R. Sahu , Ravi Kumar Gandham , Soumen Naskar , S.K. Maity , Jyotirmoy Ghosh and Sujoy K. Dhara
  The conventional method of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell (BMSC) isolation from live subjects are complex due to involvement of lot of expert personnel and pre and post operational medication and cares. Moreover, the concerning ethical issues also pose lots of restrictions for isolation of BMSC’s making stem cells research restricted to certain elite laboratories only. This study aims to compare between the regular aspiration (invasive) method and an alternative, straight forward and non-invasive method of BMSC harvest. The BMSCs were harvested by both invasive and non-invasive methods and cultured in MSC (Mesenchymal Stem Cell) medium. The cells were undergone visual assessment of growth dynamics as well as identification and characterization of MSC cells, based on microscopic examination. Both of these tested methods successfully yielded significant amount of BMSC that were found to be identical in morphology, growth dynamics and in vitro cultural properties. Unlike the invasive method that requires a live animal, the non-invasive method relies on post-slaughtered bone and therefore obviates the requirement of skill personnel and setup. Eventually, the used bone from already dead animal no longer becomes the issue of conflict with animal ethics and welfare. The ease in cell harvest and lack of ethical barrier would definitely make BMSC harvest convenient and therefore, anticipated to be well accepted in resource poor laboratories around the globe.
 
 
 
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