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Articles by Raul Rodriguez-Herrera
Total Records ( 5 ) for Raul Rodriguez-Herrera
  Miguel A. Medina , Ruth E. Belmares , Antonio Aguilera-Carbo , Raul Rodriguez-Herrera and Cristobal N. Aguilar
  Problem statement: Many agro-industrial wastes have little or none utilization, when these materials could be a very rich source of several value-added compounds, such as: the pecan nut shells, which contain Antioxidant Phenolic (AP) molecules like tannins. Approach: In this study, a bioprocess for the liberation of AP from Pecan Nut Shells (PNS) was described. A chemical characterization of raw material was evaluated to determine polyphenolic content of PNS, among other components. Several fungal culture systems were evaluated at 96 h fermentation processes and using PNS as sole carbon source. Solid (SSC) and Submerged (SmC) fermentations were carried out using three strains of Aspergillus niger. Culture medium was composed of a solid (10-50%) and a liquid (90-50%) part in order to complete the 100% of the medium. Results: A high concentration (19%) of tannins was found in PNS on a dry basis, from which condensed tannins and their monomers were found as the main fraction (14%) of tannins of PNS, also on a dry basis. In the strain selection step, Aspergillus niger GH1 showed better growth on pecan nut shells compared to A. niger PSH strain, therefore, A. niger GH1 was used for later experiments. The highest concentration of AP was obtained with SSC inoculated with spores of A. niger GH1 on the 40% of solids system and in 20% solids system where, among the other systems both presented 114 mg TP g-1 of phenolics liberation at 24 h of fermentation. PNS is an important source of catechin, being this kind of compound which can be liberated in higher proportion compared to other phenolics compounds. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that fermenting PNS represent a good alternative to both use residues and obtaining AP.
  Francisco Daniel Hernandez-Castillo , Francisco Castillo-Reyes , Gabriel Gallegos-Morales , Raul Rodriguez-Herrera and Cristobal N. Aguilar-Gonzalez
  Problem statement: Plant extracts with polyphenolic compounds obtained with different solvents have been evaluated against plant pathogens. However, most of these extract have been obtained using solvents no allowed under an organic production context. Approach: In the present research was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of polyphenolic extracts from L. graveolens and C. illinoensis, obtained with alternative organic solvents (lanolin and cocoa butter), water and ethanol against R. solani in order to determine the Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) of each extract. Results: The results showed that extracts of both L. graveolens and C. illinoensis obtained with lanolin and ethanol (200 and 3000 ppm of total tannins, respectively) inhibited at 100% growth of R. solani. The IC50 for each extract was highly variable, low IC50 values were obtained with L. graveolens (4.50x101) and C. illinoensis (4.33x102) extract using lanolin and ethanol respectively. Tannins extraction was strongly dependent on plant species and in the solvent used. Conclusion: The alternative organic solvents lanolin and cocoa butter allowed the recovery of polyphenols compounds with antifungal activity against R. solani.
  Marcela Hernandez-Suarez , Francisco Daniel Hernandez-Castillo , Gabriel Gallegos-Morales , R. Hugo Lira-Saldivar , Raul Rodriguez-Herrera and Cristobal N. Aguilar
  Problem statement: An option to reduce pollution by synthetic agro-chemical in root plant disease management is the use of antagonist rhizobacteria belonging to Bacillus genus, because their inhibitory properties, stimulation of plant growth and crop yield increase. Approach: This study was carried out in order to evaluate if Bacillus subtilis strains could play an antagonists role of plant pathogens and if they can be microencapsulated inside a biopolymer matrix. It was adapted an equipment and evaluated a technique for microcapsules elaboration, in order to incorporate B. subtilis strains and to analyze their potential as biocontrol agents by determining their antagonistic effect against pathogenic soil fungi; in addition, it was analyzed their effect on tomato plant growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. B. subtilis strains identified as B1, J1, M2 and their mixture were used; microcapsules containing bacterial strains were inoculated to tomato seeds cv. Floradade. When seedlings emerged, a second application of microcapsules containing B. subtilis was performed on the pots, which previously were inoculated with the fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. Response variables were: Incidence and disease severity, plant growth, aerial and root dry weight, leaf area and fruit yield. Results: The outcome showed that the equipment designed and adapted for microcapsules elaboration was useful to obtain microcapsules containing the bacterial strains. B. subtilis strains exerted apparent biocontrol, since incidence and disease severity was reduced and for that reason inhibited the infective activity of the inoculated plant pathogens, also microcapsules containing Bacillus strains stimulated tomato growth and fruit yield. Conclusion: Microcapsules containing B. subtilis strains could be effective biocontrol agents against soil fungi plant pathogens and could have a potential biofertilizer effect, since they stimulated growth and yield of tomato plants compared to control.
  Cristobal Noe Aguilar , Gerardo Gutierrez-Sanchez , PLilia A. rado-Barragan , Raul Rodriguez-Herrera , Jose L. Martinez-Hernandez and Juan C. Contreras-Esquivel
  Food industry represents one of the economic sectors where microbial metabolites have found a wide variety of applications. This is the case of some enzymes, such as amylases, cellulases, pectinases and proteases which have played a very important role as food additives. Most of these enzymes have been produced by submerged cultures at industrial level. Many works in the literature present detailed aspects involved with those enzymes and their importance in the food industry. However, the production and application studies of those enzymes produced by solid state fermentations are scarce in comparison with submerged fermentation. This review involves production aspects of the seven enzymes: tannases, pectinases, caffeinases, mannanases, phytases, xylanases and proteases, which can be produced by solid state fermentation showing attractive advantages. Additionally, process characteristics of solid state fermentation are considered.
  Raul Rodriguez-Herrera , Richard A. Frederiksen , William L. Rooney , Issoufou Kollo , Cristobal N. Aguilar-Gonzalez and Adrian R. Quero-Carrillo
  A serie of experiments was conducted to assess the relationship among grain molding fungi species within each grain mold rating. Seed samples from a field evaluation of 131 F2-derived F5 recombinant inbred families at eight environments were collected to isolate grain mold fungal flora. At each environment grain mold was recorded on a 1 to 5 scale at 40-45 days after flowering. The most prevalent molding fungi specie isolated was Fusarium verticillioides, which accounted for 46% of the total fungi species recovered. C. lunata was negatively correlated with Alternaria spp. and Dreschlera sp., F. verticillioides was negatively related with Alternaria sp. and positively related with C. lunata. A positive correlation was observed between the predominance of F. verticillioides and C. lunata with germination. A Spearman rank-order correlation determined negative relationship between scoring rates and seed germination and a positive relationship between seed germination and fungal species diversity. Principal component analysis indicates that as grain mold ratings increase, so does fungi interaction complexity. Knowledge about fungal flora present in different grain mold rating scores allows making inferences about the most predominant fungi species, the most important interactions among those species and may help to enhance selection process for resistant varieties.
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