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Articles by Rakesh Kumar
Total Records ( 5 ) for Rakesh Kumar
  Rakesh Kumar , Shailesh Kumar Patel , B.V. Rami Reddy , Mukesh Bhatt , K. Karthik , Ravi Kumar Gandham , Yashpal Singh Malik and Kuldeep Dhama
  The normal cell has its own homeostatic mechanism. A slight deviation in this mechanism leads firstly to an adaptive response in the form of hypertrophy, atrophy etc. But sometimes when adaptive response exceeds a limit also culminates to cell injury which ultimately leads to cell death. Irreversible form of cell injury leads to cell death in the form of necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy and by other alternative ways of necroptosis, anoikis, entosis and cornification. Necrosis and apoptosis are main mechanisms of cell death in mammalian cells. Necrosis is accidental, uncontrolled and un-programmed cell death which leads to cellular swelling, pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, disruption of cell membrane and inflammation. Apoptosis is a programmed and energy dependent pathophysiological phenomenon leading to cellular shrinkage but no cell membrane rupture and no inflammatory response. Apoptosis can be mediated by extrinsic, intrinsic and perforin/granzyme pathways, leading to activation of execution caspases and finally protein cleavage, cross linking and DNA-fragmentation. Extrinsic pathway involve ligand (FasL, TNFα) and receptors (FasR, TNFR) interaction which bind to adapter proteins Fas Associated Death Domain (FADD) and TNFα Receptor Associated Death Domain (TRADD) with activation of initiator caspases-8. Intrinsic pathway involves cytochrome c release along with pro-apoptotic proteins and inhibits anti-apoptotic proteins, leads to cytochrome c interaction with Apaf-1, thus activation of pro-caspase-9. Overall, cell death have clarified many aspects of this fundamental process and brought to the attention of scientists its role in a large number of different diseases. The present review describes apoptosis and other alternate mechanisms of cell death with biomedical and veterinary perspectives.
  Jay Prakash , Rakesh Kumar and J.P. Saini
  Desire to connect various portable devices such as laptops, PDAs, smart phones etc with internet at anytime, anywhere and any how lead to the development of wireless networks. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) consists of such devices, which are portable in nature such as laptops, mobile phones or personal digital assistants for initiation of communication. A large number of ongoing research and development in the area of MANET is constrained to the single networks and stand alone. Mobile ad hoc networks require the interconnection with internet because a broad range of services and applications rely on wired infrastructure networks now-a-days. Therefore, there is a necessity that ad hoc networks should have access to wired networks along with their services. This interconnection of MANET and internet enhance the plasticity of networking and improve the infrastructure network’s coverage area. Many solutions have been proposed by researcher for this integration, but which solution among these are comparatively better is still vague. It is mandatory for a node of ad hoc network to discover and select the most appropriate internet gateway in order to achieve the access to internet. This study focused on the various issues and challenges of internet integration along with the different proposed solutions on gateway discovery and issues associated with them.
  Vinod Kumar Mishra , Lal Sahab Singh and Rakesh Kumar
  In this study, researchers considered a deterministic inventory model with time dependent demand and time varying holding cost where deterioration is time proportional. The model considered here allows for shortages and demand is partially backlogged. The model is solved analytically by minimizing the total inventory cost. Result is illustrated with numerical example for the model.
  Rakesh Kumar , Samir Kumar Biswas , Virendra Kumar , Kishan Lal , Upesh Kumar and Vallabhaneni Tilak Chowdary
  Background and Objective: Induced resistance is an innovative strategy to overcome production problems of the most serious and destructive late blight [Phytophthora infestans] (P. infestans) diseases in potato, causes great Irish famine in 1845. Biochemical changes are associated with induced resistance. Therefore, the study was undertaken to find out the induction of defense enzymes using inorganic chemicals as inducer in induced resistance against late blight of potato. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted at Wire house complex at Department of Plant Pathology during 2012-2015 using inorganic chemicals viz. salicylic acid, indole acetic acid, di-potassium hydrogen orthophosphate, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, ferric chloride and metalaxyl as inducers in induced resistance against the disease. The activity of defense enzymes like peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) in potato plants after treatment with different inorganic chemical as inducers followed by inoculation of pathogen was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days separately according to the standard procedure developed by various scientists. Correlation coefficients (r) between defense enzymes and disease severity were calculated by standard statistical calculation. Results: All the treatments were able to reduce the disease severity with the lowest in salicylic acid treated plant, representing, the value 12.55-20.72% against 46.35-65.35% in case of control. Biochemical analysis revealed that increased content of defense enzymes like POD, PPO and PAL were found in all treated plants but the maximum in salicylic acid treated leaves at different days of interval. Correlation coefficient analysis also revealed that there was negative correlation r = (-0.886, -0.986 and -0.985),(-0.936, -0.985 and -0.986),(-0.945, -0.872 and -0.972) between disease severity and defense enzymes POD, PPO and PAL respectively at 2, 6 and 10 days of treatments. Conclusion: Pre-foliar sprayed with inorganic chemicals stimulate to synthesize the increase content of peroxidase, PPO and PAL which might be provided protection of potato plants against P. infestans. Salicylic acid can be used as inducers in induced resistance in potato against late blight.
  Chunying Song , Wenyu Wen , Suresh K. Rayala , Mingzhi Chen , Jianpeng Ma , Mingjie Zhang and Rakesh Kumar
  Dynein light chain 1 (DLC1, also known as DYNLL1, LC8, and PIN), a ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved protein, participates in a variety of essential intracellular events. Transition of DLC1 between dimer and monomer forms might play a crucial role in its function. However, the molecular mechanism(s) that control the transition remain unknown. DLC1 phosphorylation on Ser88 by p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), a signaling nodule, promotes mammalian cell survival by regulating its interaction with Bim and the stability of Bim. Here we discovered that phosphorylation of Ser88, which juxtapose each other at the interface of the DLC dimer, disrupts DLC1 dimer formation and consequently impairs its interaction with Bim. Overexpression of a Ser88 phosphorylation-inactive DLC1 mutant in mammary epithelium cells and in a transgenic animal model caused apoptosis and accelerated mammary gland involution, respectively, with increased Bim levels. Structural and biophysical studies suggested that phosphorylation-mimicking mutation leads to dissociation of the DLC1 dimer to a pure folded monomer. The phosphorylation-induced DLC1 monomer is incapable of binding to its substrate Bim. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized regulatory mechanism of DLC1 in which the Ser88 phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch for the transition of DLC1 from dimer to monomer, thereby modulating its interaction with substrates and consequently regulating the functions of DLC1.
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