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Articles by Raghavendra Bhatta
Total Records ( 3 ) for Raghavendra Bhatta
  Joy Aleena , Prathap Pragna , P.R. Archana , Veerasamy Sejian , Madiajagan Bagath , Govindan Krishnan , A. Manimaran , V. Beena , E.K. Kurien , Girish Varma and Raghavendra Bhatta
  The animals possess various inherent mechanisms to cope up with the changing environmental conditions. It has been observed that the ability of the animals to adjust with these climatic extremes is related to their level of adaptation and this is inversely correlated with their production potential. In depth understanding of metabolic response of livestock adaptation might pave way for developing more viable adaptive measures to cope up livestock production system to climate change. Hence, this review is an attempt to cover the significance of metabolic response to animal adaptation during heat stress. In animals, less feed intake helps to reduce the internal heat production by minimizing the metabolic processes to adapt the heat stressed condition. Thyroid glands and thyroid hormones are mainly known to have a very important role in the thermoregulation and homeostasis of energy and protein metabolism. Further, the histological sections of the thyroid gland of livestock subjected to heat stress indicates pathological changes of less thyroglobulin in the thyroid cells reflecting a significant decrease in thyroid activity. Changes in the concentration of thyroid hormones in the blood reflect the metabolic and nutrient status of the body. Thyroid hormones play a critical role in thermogenesis and therefore are an important reflection of adaptation to heat stress in livestock species. The roles of metabolic regulators are crucial in assessing the physiological response to heat stress through various enzymes governing the metabolic reactions in blood. The decreased level of non-estrified fatty acid (NEFA) during heat stress condition in livestock is attributed to enhance the glucose burning as a presumable strategy to reduce metabolic heat production in the animal body. In addition, alteration in the levels of both aspartate aminotranspharase (AST) and alanine aminotranspharase (ALT) are correlated to adaptive potential of livestock to environmental challenges. Based on this review, it was concluded that metabolic response is one of the primary means by which the animals tries to cope up with heat stress challenges. The animal reduces their metabolic activities in an effort to reduce the metabolic heat production to cope up with outside environment heat stress condition.
  Inbaraj Sophia , Veerasamy Sejian , Madiajagan Bagath and Raghavendra Bhatta
  Background and Objective: Climate change related heat and nutritional stress weakens the animal’s immune system and makes them more prone to diseases. Although this has been observed by various researchers, the impact of these stresses on immune gene expression and process of heat stress mediated immune suppression at molecular level has not been dealt in detail in goat. Hence, the study was conducted to establish the impact of heat stress, nutritional stress and combined stresses (heat and nutritional) on different spleen Toll Like Receptor (TLR) genes expression in Osmanabadi goats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four adult Osmanabadi male goats (average body weight 16.0 kg) were divided into four groups viz., C (n = 6, control), HS (n = 6, heat stress), NS (n = 6, nutritional stress) and CS (n = 6, combined stress). The study was conducted for a period of 45 days. The C and HS goats had ad libitum access to their feed while NS and CS goats were under restricted feed (30% intake of C bucks) to induce nutritional stress. The HS and CS goats were exposed to heat stress in outside environment for 6 h a day between 10:00-16:00 h to induce heat stress. The average minimum and maximum temperature and Relative Humidity (RH) during the study period were 27.23±3.46, 38.33±0.52 and 37.0±4.16, respectively. The animals were slaughtered and their spleen was collected for different TLR mRNA expression. The relative gene expression was calculated using the formula 2–ΔΔCT. The results were expressed in fold change as compared to untreated control (control = 1 fold). Results: The fold expression level of TLR 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 mRNA in spleen followed the same trend in the current study where comparatively higher expression was noticed in CS group. These different TLR mRNA expressions in CS group were of higher magnitude as compared to both HS and NS group goats. This shows the severity of environmental stresses when occurring simultaneously and the consequences on immune response were much more severe than the individual stress. Conclusion: The activated splenic innate immune functions in terms of different increased TLR expression during combined stress indicate the Osmanabadi goat’s adaptation and disease resistance mechanism under extreme environmental conditions.
  Prathap Pragna , P.R. Archana , Joy Aleena , Veerasamy Sejian , Govindan Krishnan , Madiajagan Bagath , A. Manimaran , V. Beena , E.K. Kurien , Girish Varma and Raghavendra Bhatta
  Heat stress is one of the major concerns which affect the production potential of dairy cattle almost in every part of world. Elevated temperature and humidity negatively affects feed intake leading to negatively affecting the reproductive potential which ultimately decrease milk production. High yielding cows more susceptible to heat stress than the low yielders. Heat stress can increase body temperature which may affect the fat synthesis in mammary gland. Apart from reducing the milk production, heat stress can also reduce the quality of milk. Internal metabolic heat production during lactation can further reduce the resistance of cattle to high ambient temperature, resulting in altered milk composition and reduction in milk yield. Heat stress can affect the various components of milk such as fat (%), solid-non-fat, protein, casein and lactose content. Heat stress can increase the somatic cell count indicating the reduction in quality of milk produced. Further, heat stress can also cause endocrine disbalance such as altering the levels of prolactin, thyroid hormones, glucocorticoid, growth hormone, estrogen, progesterone and oxytocin which ultimately affects the milk production. Heat stress through higher udder temperature may also cause mastitis in dairy cows. In addition, heat stress during dry period in particular might trigger mammary gland involution accompanied with apoptosis and autophagy, decreased amount of mammary epithelial cells can ultimately cause decline in milk yield. It may be concluded from this review that heat stress is considered to be adversely impacting both quantity as well as quality of milk produced. Heat stress brings about these impacts through reduced feed intake, altered hormone concentration and pathological changes in udder during mastitis.
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