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Articles by Rafael H. Carvalho
Total Records ( 3 ) for Rafael H. Carvalho
  Rafael H. Carvalho , Danielle C.B. Honorato , Paulo D. Guarnieri , Adriana L. Soares , Mayka R. Pedrao , Fernanda G. Paiao , Alexandre Oba , Elza I. Ida and Massami Shimokomaki
  The development of Rigor mortis (RM) in turkey Pectoralis major under routine commercial plant conditions was described. Carcass samples (n = 40) were refrigerated by air chill (AC) in a processing line and the final temperature (T) of 4°C was reached after 7 h Postmortem (PM) and the ultimate pH (pHu) of 5.68 was achieved after 24 h PM. For results comparison, carcasses were kept at ambient temperature (AT), averaging 20±2°C and the pHu of 5.67 was reached after 5 h PM. The AC samples presented darker and higher water holding capacity values compared to AT samples after 10 h PM while at 24 h PM these results did not differ between delay and fast glycolysis. Finally, the rate of glycolysis was directly affected by air refrigeration and the fillet samples should be processed at 24 h PM to ensure complete RM onset thus preventing the decrease of meat qualities.
  Arlan S. Freitas , Leila M. Carvalho , Adriana L. Soares , Arnoud C. de S. Neto , Marta S. Madruga , Rafael H. Carvalho , Elza I. Ida and Massami Shimokomaki
  Background: The pre-slaughter management conditions and transport of poultry from the farm to the slaughterhouse could represent significant economic losses compromising the animal welfare affecting consequently the meat quality if the good practices are not followed. Moreover, studies on broiler chicken journey under Brazilian tropical climate zone are scarce. Objective: The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence of broiler microclimates formed in a lorry container during journey from farm to the slaughterhouse associated to lairage under commercial conditions on breast-meat quality in a tropical environment. Also, DOA index, dead on arrival was determined. Material and Methods: The broilers of 47 day-old (n = 1,400) were monitored from farm to slaughterhouse over a distance of 289 km under rainy conditions and 5 h of lairage. Anemometers were placed at 3 lorry container positions: Front, middle and rear to measure Temperature (T), Air Velocity (AV), Relative Humidity (RH) and Heat Index (HI) throughout the journey and lairage. Hyper and hypothermia were evaluated by determining the occurrence of PSE (pale, soft and exudative) and DFD (dark, firm and dry) meat. The mortality of chickens was quantified at the time the birds were hung on the receiving platform. The Tukey’s test (p≤0.05) was applied to compare means of micro-environmental data, PSE, DFD and DOA at 3 different lorry container positions. Results: The recorded AV was highest in the front and the other variables also altered depending on the container compartments location. The RH values were also the highest at the rear and lowest at the front throughout the experiment. The rainfall occurred in every journey, which might have influenced the variables, as the lorries had open roofs. The results were 10.14 and 3.59%, PSE and DFD, respectively and the DOA index was 0.45%. Conclusion: The presence of PSE and DFD meat samples indicated that the birds were micro-environmentally exposed to heat and cold stress, respectively, leading to a relatively high DOA index. All of these factors are controllable and it is advisable to encourage poultry-processing plant companies to follow good pre-slaughter management practices in order to preserve animal welfare and thus the meat quality.
  Arlan S. Freitas , Leila M. Carvalho , Adriana L. Soares , Maria E. da S. Oliveira , Marta S. Madruga , Arnoud C. de S. Neto , Rafael H. Carvalho , Elza I. Ida and Massami Shimokomaki
  Background and Objective: The Brazilian poultry industry has difficulties in maintaining meat quality standard as the country presents diverse climate conditions particularly having tropical and subtropical zones. Whilst the total gross production is located within the subtropical zones no much is currently known in the tropical zone particularly within the North Eastern (NE) region. This study was conducted to evaluate the broiler breast meat quality by quantifying the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) and dark, firm and dry (DFD) meat in a commercial processing plant during the dry and rainy seasons in the Brazilian NE region. Materials and Methods: A total of 2,800 breast samples were collected during the dry (n = 1,400) and rainy (n = 1,400) season. The animals were slaughtered and carcass processed according to the standard industry practices. The student’s t-test with a 5% probability (p<0.05) was used to compare the differences among the averages of lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), ultimate pH (pHu) and Water Holding Capacity (WHC) in pectoralis major. Results: The incidence of PSE meat was 43.53 and 10.46% in dry and rainy season, respectively. Additionally, 3.3% of DFD meat was found as the result of wet weather conditions only observed in the rainy season. Conclusion: The high occurrence of PSE-meat suggested the need to control broiler pre and pos-slaughter handling conditions in order to maintain the meat quality. Despite of hot weather conditions either in the rainy or dry season, it is feasible to motivate the broiler growth activities within the Brazilian tropical zone.
 
 
 
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