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Articles by Raafat Mohamed Shaapan
Total Records ( 5 ) for Raafat Mohamed Shaapan
  Bahaa EL-Deen Wadea El-Aswad , Amira Fathy Abd El-Atty , Manal Ahmed El-Melegy , Raafat Mohamed Shaapan , Amany Fawzy Atia , Noha Ahmed El Kaddy and Mohamed Mohamed Abd El-Ghaffar
  Background and Objective: A zoonotic Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi ) has the widest range and geographical distribution attributed to the mechanical transmission by many vectors. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activation by interleukin-17 (IL-17) were expressed in mice experimentally infected with T. evansi in addition to detection of serum level of IL-17 for better understanding the roles of iNOS and IL-17 in controlling this protozoan infection. Materials and Methods: Infected group (I) mice were injected with 4.5×105 trypomastigotes intraperitoneally, subdivided into I-3, I-5, I-10 and I-20 subgroups (10 mice, each), then sacrificed at 3, 5, 10 and 20 days post infection (p.i.), respectively, whereas control group mice (C) were injected with saline, subdivided into C-3, C-5, C-10 and C-20 subgroups (6 mice, each) and sacrificed along the parallel infected subgroup one. Results: iNOS was immunohistochemically detected with more expression in brain and the IL-17 revealed more in spleen than liver or brain, also its serum level increased significantly with progression of the infection. There was a negative correlation between parasitemia and either iNOS or IL-17. Conclusion: Trypanosoma evansi infection caused increasing both IL-17 and iNOS expression which both were coinciding with a low number of trypomastigotes referring strongly to their roles in limiting the infection.
  Raafat Mohamed Shaapan and Ahmed Zeinhom Shehata
  Background and Objective: Musca domestica is an important mechanical vector of many pathogenic agents causing serious problems to human livestock. Application of chemical insecticides for control of M. domestica resulted in well-known problems to human, environment and non-target organisms, thus there is an urgent need to develop a new materials to avoid the hazards of chemical insecticides. The present study investigated the effect of different extracts from leaves of Trigonella stellata and Eucalyptus citriodora on M. domestica third instars larvae, resulted pupae and reproductive potential of females resulted from treated larvae. Materials and Methods: Musca domestica reared under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod. Tested plants collected and leaves were extracted with ethanol 70%, chloroform and hexane. Different concentrations of each extract were mixed with larval artificial diet instead of water to detect the activity of tested extracts against M. domestica. Results: Larvicidal bioassay showed that hexane extracts from tested plants recorded the highest activity against M. domestica as compared with other 2 extracts. The LC50 values of T. stellata and E. citriodora (leaves) hexane extracts recorded 81.07 and 187.79 ppm, respectively. All tested extracts significantly (p<0.05) reduced the fecundity and increased the sterility index of females resulted from treated larvae. Sterility index recorded 64.21 and 59.28% by 130 and 250 ppm of T. stellata and E. citriodora (leaves) hexane extracts, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that T. stellata and E. citriodora tested extracts considered to be promising alternative agents for the control of M. domestica.
  Mousa Abdel Gawad Mousa Ismail , Ibrahim Rabie Aly , Enas Yahia Abu-Sarea , Samah Sayed Abdel Gawad and Raafat Mohamed Shaapan
  Background and Objective: Immunodiagnosis has been found to be useful not only in primary diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) but also for the follow up of patients after treatment. The present study aimed to prepare and purify paramyosin antigen of E. granulosus and evaluate its diagnostic efficacy for detection of echinococcosis by latex agglutination test (LAT) and sandwich Enzyme Linked Immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) in human serum samples. Materials and Methods: The LAT and sandwich ELISA was carried out using purified hydatid cyst paramyosin antigen by gel filtration. The tested sera included sera from patients infected with hydatidosis (n = 41), sera of patients with other parasites; 8 with Schistosoma mansoni, 5 with Schistosoma haematobium, 10 with fascioliasis, 10 with amoebiasis and 20 tested negative control. Results: The results showed that by using LAT; 10 out of 41 E. granulosus infected samples showed false negative results and the sensitivity of the assay was 75.6%. All 14 out of 33 of other parasites groups were at the border line of the cut off value giving 73.6% specificity. The 5 false positive cases in the group of patients infected with Fasciola and 5 false positive cases in patients with liver amoebiasis. The 3 false positive cases found in patients with Schistosoma mansoni and only one false positive case in patients with Schistosoma haematobium. By using sandwich ELISA, 37 of E. granulosus infected patients had high positive antigen concentration leading to sensitivity of 80.4% while the specificity was 71.7%. Conclusion: The LAT is a suitable and applicable diagnostic method especially when followed by Sandwich ELISA as a confirmatory test for diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis.
  Nawal Abd El Hafiz Hassanain , Ahmed Zeinhom Shehata , Mostafa Mohamed Mokhtar , Raafat Mohamed Shaapan , Mohey Abd El Hafiz Hassanain and Samy Zaky
  Background and Objective: Malaria is still a severe health problem especially in developing countries which occur and young children are the most affected. The present study was designed to compare the insecticidal potential of Lantana camara leaves extract alone and its synthesized nanoparticles against Anopheles multicolor. Materials and Methods: Copper nanoparticles CuNPs were synthesized by green bio-reduction method using aqueous extract of leaves of Lantana camara plant. The CuNPs formation was confirmed by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and Transitional Electron Microscopy (TEM). The application of L. camara extract and its synthesized CuNPs on different stages of A. multicolor were adopted. Results: The biosynthesized CuNPs were spherical with the average sizes of 11-17.8 nm. The highest insecticidal effect (100% of larval mortality) achieved at high dose (140 ppm) of L. camara leaves extract alone comparing with that occur at low dose (20 ppm) of CuNPs synthesized L. camara leaves. The LC50 and LC90 for the 4 instar larvae were 63.5 and 119.9 ppm for plant extract alone compared to 12.6 and 18.4 ppm for CuNPs preparation. Conclusion: So, this study proved that CuNPs preparation of L. camara leaves is highly efficient compared to the plant extract alone and more economic as less quantities were used. Also, awareness against invasion of Anopheles mosquito vectors with effective preventive measures to protect from malaria infection.
  Mona Ibrahim Ali , Mousa Abdel Gawad Mousa Ismail , Gehad Abd-Elftah Abd-Allah , Mahmoud Abdel-Latif , Raafat Mohamed Shaapan , Hisham Salah , Samah Sayed Abdel Gawad and Enas Yahia Abu-Sarea
  Background and Objective: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite widely distributed all over the world. It has been associated with various psychiatric conditions as schizophrenia. This study aiming to evaluate the association between T. gondii infection and schizophrenia and to estimate the effect of T. gondii infection on the serum dopamine level among schizophrenic patients. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted over 45 schizophrenic patients and 44 normal controls. Serum IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected by a commercial ELISA Kit. The immunoblotting method was performed for the detection of IgG anti-Toxoplasma dopamine was detected by the human dopamine ELISA kit. Results: Anti-T. gondii IgM was negative in all the 90 studied individuals. However, anti-T. gondii IgG was positive in 25 schizophrenic patients (55.6%) and 13 normal healthy controls (28.9%). Immunoblotting showed stronger specific reaction to proteins with molecular weights 50 and 60 kDa by +ve IgG schizophrenic patients. The serum dopamine level among schizophrenic patients was increased as compared to healthy controls (47.22 and 25.79%, respectively; p <0.001). In addition, the dopamine levels in +ve IgG were higher than those of –ve IgG schizophrenic patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic T. gondii infection causes high dopamine levels that may lead to schizophrenia. About 55% of schizophrenic patients showed positive IgG reactions to Toxoplasma within this population, the dopamine levels were higher than seronegative population and revealed both 50 and 60 kDa proteins band specific to Toxoplasma.
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