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Articles by Raafat Mohamed Shaapan
Total Records ( 5 ) for Raafat Mohamed Shaapan
  Mohamed Abd El-Fatah Mahmoud , Alaa Abdelmoneam Ghazy and Raafat Mohamed Shaapan
  Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases of mammals that have an ability to cause high economic losses in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. In addition to, losses in the milk productions occurred in the form of sudden and severe drop of milk yield. The aim of the present work was to throw light on the different methods for diagnosis and control of FMD that affect dairy small ruminants; sheep and goats. Sheep and goats play a role in the FMD epidemiology, as they become carriers and act as reservoirs of infection. Diagnosis of FMD achieved by many techniques such as virus isolation, Sandwich ELISA, Multiplex PCR, indirect ELISA (DIVA) and real time PCR. Virus isolation onto cell culture is considered as the “gold standard” technique for FMD diagnosis. Moreover, detecting of antibodies against the non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD using indirect-ELISA were successful for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). Differentiation of the infected from the vaccinated animal is of great importance in the control program of FMD. The control program depends mainly on vaccination, treatment, effective quarantine measures, disinfection and hygiene and sanitation measures. Treatment protocols of small ruminants are showing typical clinical symptoms of FMD achieved by the use of antipyretic and analgesic medicine and a broad-spectrum long-acting antibiotic. The inactivated FMDV vaccine succeeded in reducing the outbreaks worldwide. It gives protection for all ruminants against FMDV for 1 year. Foot and mouth disease have the ability to cause milk production losses in small ruminants. Recent diagnostic tools urgently needed not only for the diagnosis, but also for following-up combating programs and control of FMD.
  Abdullah Daria ALanazi , Swaid Abdullah , Chris Helps , Richard Wall , Robert Puschendorf , Samir Abdelkreem ALHarbi , Sobhy Abdel-Shafy and Raafat Mohamed Shaapan
  Background and Objectives: Domestic animals, including camels, in Saudi Arabia suffer from various diseases, among which tick-borne infections are important because they reduce the productivity of these animals. However, knowledge of tick-borne pathogens in camels in Saudi Arabia is very limited, so the aims of this study were to quantify the abundance and distribution of tick species infesting camels from different districts of Riyadh province and use molecular tools to detect tick-borne pathogens in both the ticks and blood samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 218 ticks were collected from 116 camels from the 5 districts of Riyadh. The ticks and camel blood samples were analyzed for Borrelia, Babesia and Theileria pathogens using conventional and real-time PCR. Results: The results showed that five different tick species were identified. Majority of the ticks were Hyalomma dromedarii (70.6%), which were collected from camels in all 5 districts. This was followed by Hyalomma impeltatum species (25.2%), which was again found in all the districts. The other species found were Hyalomma anatolicum, Haemaphysalis sp. and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The only one H. dromedarii tick was positive for Theileria sp. DNA. Although the sample size and the area of tick collection were limited, the data suggest that the prevalence of pathogens in the Riyadh province, Saudi Arabia is relatively low. Conclusion: The study provides useful preliminary data to inform future full-scale country-wide surveys.
  Waleed Salaheldin Soliman , Raafat Mohamed Shaapan , Laila Ali Mohamed , Abdelgaed M. Younes , MamdouhYousef Elgendy and Doha Ahmed Salah El din
  Background and Objective: Fish and other fish products may be a causal agent of foodborne illnesses in humans if they contaminated by pathogenic bacteria, parasites, biogenic amines and toxins. The aim of this study was to screen some biogenic amines and their relation to microbial isolation in fish and fish products from the Egyptian markets. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 samples of fresh Mugil cephalus, smoked herring (Clupea harengus), fesikh (salted Mugil cephalus) and moloha (salted Hydrocynus forskahlii); 50 samples for each were collected randomly from markets and supermarkets of different localities in Egypt. Results: The bacteriological examination of tested samples revealed 207 bacterial isolates and were identified by using API strips. The most frequently isolated species were Vibrio anguillarum (17.4%), Micrococcus spp. (15.5%), Escherichia coli (12.1%), Enterobacter aerogenes (10.1%) and Aeromonas hydrophila (9.2%), while Pseudomonas fluorescens, Clostridium perfringens and Proteus mirabilis were isolated with low incidence (7.7, 6.8 and 6.3%, respectively). On the other hand Staphylococcus xylosus and Streptococcus uberis were isolated with very low incidence (3.4 and 1.4%). Screening of bacterial isolates demonstrated that 92 bacterial isolates (44.4%) were positive for biogenic amines production. From these, 43 (46.7%), 36 (39.1%) and 13 (14.2%) bacterial isolates were positive for cadaverine, putrescine and histamine, respectively. Some of these bacteria can cause serious diseases in fish and are often associated with human food borne disease. Conclusion: The application of early detection of biogenic amines producing bacteria and improvement of hygienic practices could reduce the risk of food poisoning.
  Ashraf Mohamed Barakat , Lobna Mohamed Ali Salem , Adel M. Abdel-Aziz El-Newishy , Raafat Mohamed Shaapan and Ehab Kotb El-Mahllawy
  Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.
  Nawal Abdel Hafez Hassanain , Raafat Mohamed Shaapan and Mohey Abdel Hafez Hassanain
  Background and Objective: The major maternal toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy is regularly related to trans-placental transmission to the embryo and newly-borne child. This cross-section study was performed to investigate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women attending antennal health centers. Materials and Methods: The IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma were quantitatively determined by commercially available kits, while IgG antibodies and avidity (AV) of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies were quantitatively determined by using of conventional ELISA. Results: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii IgM among the investigated pregnant women was much higher than toxoplasma IgG with low IgG avidity representing acute infection with possibility of risk to the mother, embryo and newly-borne child. Results also showed that highest Toxoplasma prevalence was among pregnant women with history of intake of immunosuppressive drugs and abortion, having cats and animals in their households and in the 1st and 2nd trimesters. Conclusion: The high infection prevalence of T. gondii among the Egyptian pregnant women in Giza governorate revealed the risk of premature termination of pregnancy due to exposure of T. gondii infection.
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