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Articles by R.W.S. Ningrat
Total Records ( 7 ) for R.W.S. Ningrat
  R.W.S. Ningrat , Mardiati Zain , Erpomen and Heny Suryani
  Background and Objective: Tannins have the ability to bind protein and can act to increase animal productivity by rendering protein inactive in the rumen and releasing it post-rumen for use by the animal for meat or milk production.This study was to determine the effect of supplementation of tannin from two different sources at different doses to ammoniated oil palm frond on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics. Source of tannin is Gambier Leaves Waste (GLW) from Payakumbuh and Painan, two different districts in West Sumatera province. Doses of GLW on dry matter bases. Materials and Methods: The experiment was arranged in a block randomized design with seven treatments and three replications. The treatments were A = oil palm frond was treated with 4% urea, B1 = A+10% GLW Payakumbuh, B2 = A+ 15% GLW Payakumbuh, B3 = A+20% GLW Payakumbuh, C1 = A+10% GLW Painan, C2 = A+ 15% GLW Painan and C3 = A+20% GLW Painan. Variables measured were methane production, DM, OM, NDF and ADF digestibility, concentration of NH3-N, partial VFAs, microbial protein synthesis, population of rumen bacteria and protozoa and ruminal fluid pH. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among means were tested using Duncan. Results: The results showed that the supplementation of GLW were significantly (p<0.05) increased degradability, fermentability and reduce methane gas production. The treatment had no significant effect (p>0.05) on ruminal fluid pH, propionate production and population of bacteria. The DM digestibility increased from 48.45 (Treatment A)-52.95% (Treatment B2) and OM digestibility 51.34 (Treatment A)-57.30% (Treatment B2). The concentration of VFAs increased from 71.00-95.78 mM. Molar proportion of VFAs was shifted from acetate to propionate production and reduced the ratio of acetate to propionate. The rumen pH with supplementation of tannins is relatively more stable. Methane production decreased from 27.22 (Treatment A)-12.67 mM (Treatment B2) and to 15.13 mM (Treatment C1). The methane production reduced to 53% (Treatment B2) and 45% (Treatment C1) compare control. Conclusion: These results showed that 15% GLW Payakumbuh and 10% GLW Painan was suitable to be used as doses and source of tannins but the supplementation of 15% GLW Payakumbuh give the best results on digestibility and in reducing methane gas production.
  Khasrad and R.W.S. Ningrat
  Lack of adequate nutrition all year round is one of the major causes of the low productivity of ruminants. An operational policy announced by the Indonesian government to achieve the target to be self sufficient on meat demand 2010 is to develop feed and ration for beef industry based on agricultural and industrial-wastes besides exploiting biodiversity that has not been fully implemented by the farmers. A feeding trial with 12 Pesisir cattle, indigenous cattle of West Sumatera weighed 120-150 kg aged 2-3 yrs old were carried out to investigate the effect of feeding local feed resources on their growth performance and carcass characteristics; dressing percentage, rib eye area, lean and fat percentage. Animals were divided into two equal groups of similar average body weight, assigned to Completely Randomized Design and were individually fed for 90 days. The first group was offered control feed as practiced by farmer and the second group was offered treatment diet based on ammoniated rice straw and chipped cassava. This feeding trial was followed by a slaughter experiment on one animal from each group to study of carcass traits. Cattle receiving a treatment diet performed better (p<0.05) in all parameters measured, than those receiving control diets. There was significant difference (p>0.05) observed between the two groups with regard to Average Total Body Weight Gain (ATG) and Average Daily Body Weight Gain (ADG) 0.20 kg/d to 0.68 kg/d respectively. Dressing percentage was significantly higher in treatment diet (52.59%) than in control diet (50.82%). The rib eye area, lean and fat percentage was significantly higher in treatment diet than in control diet. It was concluded that feeding improved low quality local feed resources could have a positive effects on growth performance and carcass traits of indigenous cattle.
  R. Herawaty , N. Jamarun , M. Zain , Arnim and R.W.S. Ningrat
  The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of adding S. cerevisiae and leaf of L. leucocephala in diet rice straw-based of nutrients digestibility and body weight gain of cattle. The experiment was conducted in Ruminant Nutrition Laboratory of the Faculty of Animal Science, Andalas University, Padang. Experimental design used is a Latin Square Design (LSD) with four treatments and four periods. This experiment used 175.±10.53 kg male ongole crossbreed. The treatments were (A) grass+concentrates (B) rice straw+concentrates (C) was the treatment of B plus 0.5% S. cerevisiae and (D) was the treatment C+15% L. leucocephala. The results showed that the dry matter digestibility of treatment B (61.03%) were significantly lower than treatments A, C and D respectively (68.05, 63.01 and 68.15%) and supplementation of S. cerevisiae was able to improve nutrient digestibility and body weight gain of cattle but still low as compared to control (A). Addition of L. leucocephala in treatment D (850.7 g/day) was able to provide digestibility and body weight gain similar to the control ration (775.7 g/day). It can be concluded that the use of rice straw as a substitute for grass would give the same results with the grass when added 0.5% S. cerevisiae and 15% L. leucocephala.
  Erman Syahruddin , R. Herawaty and R.W.S. Ningrat
  Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause stroke attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented katuk leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10,12 and 14% of fermented katuk leaf. All diets were formulated to contain 21% crude protein and 3200 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsexed Lohmann broiler chicks were fed ad lib for eight weeks and then slaughtered. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented katuk leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (p<0.05) affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 19.32% 72.48 to 58.48 mg/100 g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 14% fermented katuk leaf.
  Erman Syahruddin , R. Herawaty and R.W.S. Ningrat
  This study aims to determine the level of use of the leaves and seeds of the rubber fermentation (DBKF) as a 100% replacement for soybean meal in the ration of broiler chickens that do not interfere with the performance of broiler chickens. The study consisted of a series of field experiments. Experiments in the field/cage to test the response of biological production (percentage of body weight gain and carcass) and gross profit in broiler chickens aged 1 day as many as two hundred and forty tail Arbor Strain acres. The draft completely randomized design with six treatment is replacement of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of soybean meal protein in leaves and rubber seed fermentation and 4 replicates with 10 chickens for each box. Data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and if it shows a marked influence followed by Duncans test/DMRT. Variables measured were feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage and income over feed cost (IOFC) of broiler chickens. The results showed that the production performance of broiler chickens mainly on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion is not too much affected by the use of rubber seed leaves and fermentation (DBKF) in cattle rations. Soybean meal protein replacement level with leaves and rubber seed fermentation (DBKF) in the ration can be done up to 80% in broiler rations.
  Heni Suryani , M. Zain , R.W.S. Ningrat and N. Jamarun
  This study was conducted to determine the effect of Direct Fed Microbial (DFM) supplementation on in vitro fermentability and degradability of ammoniated palm frond. DFM’s used were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), Aspergillus oryzae (AO) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA). Palm frond previously treated with 6% urea. The treatments were of, P0 = ammoniated oil palm frond, P1 = P0+SC (1% DM), P2 = P0+AO (1% DM), P3 = P0+BA (1% DM), P4 = P0+SC+AO (1% DM), P5 = P0+SC+BA (1% DM), P6 = P0+AO+BA (1% DM), P7 = P0+SC+AO+BA (1% DM). Variables measured were Dry matter (DM) and Organic matter (OM) in vitro digestibility, concentration of Ammonia (NH3), Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) and fluid ruminal pH values as fermentability indicators. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and difference among means were tested using LSD. The results showed that the supplementation of DFM were significantly (p<0.05) increased on digestibility of DM, OM, concentration of NH3-N and VFA. The treatment had no significant effect (p>0.05) on fluid ruminal pH values. Digestibility of DM and OM increased from 47.5% (without DFM) to 51.55% (with DFM), 48.89 to 52.41%. The concentration of NH3-N and VFA increased from 12.28 to 14.28 mM and 108.35 to 125.90 mM, respectively. The rumen pH with supplementation of DFM is relatively more stable. The results showed that SC was suitable to be used single or in combination with AO or BA, but the combination of SC+BA (P5) give the best results on digestibility of DM, OM, concentration of NH3-N and VFA.
  Heni Suryani , M. Zain , R.W.S. Ningrat and N. Jamarun
  Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of supplementation of an ammoniated palm frond-based diet with Direct-Fed Microbials (DFM) and Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) on the in vivo methane production, Dry Matter Intake (DMI), Organic Matter Intake (OMI), Daily Gain (ADG) and nitrogen retention of Bali beef cattle. Materials and Methods: The DFMs used in this study were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) and the Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) contained 51.95% C12:0. In a pilot study, 16 male Bali cattle were assigned treatments in a randomized complete block design. Cattle were fed a basal diet containing (dry matter basis) 40% ammoniated palm frond and 60% concentrate and the treatments were: a) control, b) SC 1% DM, c) SC 0.5% DM + BA 0.5% DM and d) SC 1% DM+VCO 2% DM. Data were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among means were tested using Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT). Results: The results showed that supplementation with SC, SC+BA, SC+VCO significantly (p<0.05) reduced DMI and OMI but that the treatments were also able to increase ADG by 0.63, 0.63 and 0.71 kg day–1, respectively. Supplementation with SC+VCO increased the feed efficiency and reduced methane gas production by up to 20.63% compared to the control and nitrogen retention tended to decrease with DFM and VCO supplementation. Conclusion: These results suggest that supplementation with SC+VCO generates the best results in Bali beef cattle growth performance, methane gas production and feed efficiency.
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