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Articles by R.R. Hafidh
Total Records ( 4 ) for R.R. Hafidh
  H.S. Kadhim , A.S. Abdulamir , R.R. Hafidh , F. Abubaker and K.A. Abbas
  Problem Statement: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is a significant health problem worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of tumor development and progression are complicated but likely involve the interaction of tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, cell cycle regulatory proteins and other factors. Hence this study tries to explore the role of p53, bcl-2, c-myc and Ki-67 in TCC of the bladder in correlation with different clinicopathological criteria which are tumor grade, muscle invasion by the tumor and disease presentation, primary or recurrent tumor. Approach: Thirty patients with TCC of the bladder were involved in the period from March 2007 - May 2008. Tumors were diagnosed by histopathology and compared with 20 control subjects. The expressions of p53, bcl-2, c-myc and Ki-67 proteins were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: Increased expression of p53 and bcl-2 was associated with tumor grade and muscle invasion (p<0.05), but not with disease presentation (p>0.05). C-myc expression was only associated with muscle invasion (p<0.05). Ki-67 was associated with tumor grade, muscle invasion and tumor presentation (p<0.05). The correlation among these cell cycle proteins was generally significantly positive except for the correlation between bcl-2 and c-myc was poor. Conclusions: There was a significant oncogenic role of p53 and bcl-2 on TCC in terms of muscle invasion and tumor grade. C-myc was associated only with tumor invasiveness and Ki-67 proved to act as a reliable prognostic factor of TCC. This could highlight the hot targets of TCC anti-cancer therapy and the reliable targets for disease prognosis.
  A.S. Abdulamir , R.R. Hafidh , L.K. Mahdi , T.R. Al-jeboori , F. Abubaker and K.A. Abbas
  This study was carried out for evaluating the interplay of p53, p21 and Ki-67 proteins along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma oncogenic transformation sequel. Therefore, Fifty colorectal cancer and 14 adenoma patients were involved. The histopathological expression of p53, p21 and Ki-67 proteins was evaluated by immunohistochemistry assay. The results revealed that remarkable overexpression of p53 protein was seen in the tumorous sections of cancer patients more than that in adenoma patients (p<0.05), while no p53 overexpression was found in the corresponding non-tumorous sections. The positive expression of p21 protein was lower in the tumorous sections of cancer patients than that of adenoma patients (p<0.05) and was higher in the non-tumorous than the corresponding tumorous sections of both CRC and adenoma patients (p<0.05). The expression of p53 and p21 proteins in cancer patients was inversely correlated to each other (p<0.05) and the expression of p21 rather than p53 protein was associated with colorectal cancer staging and grading (p<0.05). Ki-67 was higher in cancer than in adenoma patients and higher in the tumorous tissue sections than the corresponding non-tumorous sections (p<0.05). The overexpression of p53 and downexpression of p21 proteins in colorectal cancer might be responsible largely for triggering the transformational changes in normal mucosa to develop adenoma and trigger also the malignant cascade from adenoma to carcinoma. P53 overexpression was shown to occur due to the mutated dysfunctional p53 gene product which loses its transcriptional activator necessary for p21 expression. The level of p21 protein which is a quantitatively affected by the loss of p53 activation is responsible for the association with cancer staging and grading that serves as a good indicator for the disease progression.
  A.S. Abdulamir , R.R. Hafidh , N. Abdulmuhaimen , F. Abubaker and K.A. Abbas
  The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotyping of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBL) in Head and Neck Cancers (HNCA) patients and to relate this with the level of Cell-Mediated Immunity (CMI) measured by in vitro lymphoproliferative assay, in order to evaluate immune suppression in HNCA patients and its possible mechanisms. Accordingly, one hundred twenty two HNCA patients and 100 control subjects were enrolled in this study. HNCA patients were classified into 42 nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 66 carcinoma of larynx and 14 Hypo Pharyngeal Carcinoma (HPC). For measuring CMI, Microculture Tetrazolium assay (MTT) was applied on the freshly isolated lymphocytes of HNCA patients and control group. Immunophenotyping of PBL was carried out for monitoring the blood level of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD21+ cells in HNCA patients in comparison with controls. The results of both assays have been integrated, revealed the presence of remarked immune suppression in HNCA patients in comparison with the controls, especially for NasoPharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) patients who were immunosuppressed more than other studied HNCA types. Surprisingly, NPC group showed the lowest CMI level along with the highest level of PBL subsets, particularly NPC patients expressed the highest level of CD8+ cells among HNCA. It was inferred that CD8+ cells were more likely immune suppressor rather than cytotoxic cells and this is the principal factor for inducing sustained immunosuppression in HNCA and in NPC in particular. Furthermore CD4/CD8 ratio proved to be a reliable index for assessing the immunological status of HNCA patients and more dependable index than other immunity-evaluating factors.
  R.R. Hafidh , A.S. Abdulamir , F. Abu Bakar , F. Abas , F. Jahanshiri and Z. Sekawi
  Problem statement: Plant antioxidants are natural plant products that inhibit the adverse effects of the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) produced in plants. Thus, antioxidants enable plants to survive. Depending on this principle, human beings started using some plants’ parts to cure from diseases many centuries ago, even before the discovery of microbes or disclosing the etiology of many human diseases. Shed light on the importance of diet and natural products that have proved of great health impact on human traditionally and scientifically, disclosing the central role of natural antioxidants in this matter. Moreover, this review tried to give an overview on the research has so far done in Asian countries particularly in the field of natural antioxidants during the period 2000-2008. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present a comprehensive index for the antioxidant property of herbs and plants that have been traditionally used as well as experimentally proved beneficial in these countries. Approach: We had compared Asian and other nation's diet in the popularity of the traditional medicine and the type of daily meal in respect to their antioxidants contents and valuable health promoting effects. Many literatures had been collected using online search engines and the main library of University Putra Malaysia. The gathered data had been arranged alphabetically in a table depending on the plant’s scientific name, common name, the used part(s) and the family name. Results: The research had shown that there were seventy-six plants with proved antioxidant activity which had been well studied by Asian scientists in the chosen period of time. Conclusion: The antioxidant components of the natural products constitute the major source of human health promotion and maintenance. The nature is still the perfect source for health promotion and for the supplementation of safe drugs. Great attention is mandatory from all the scientists around the world to explore many underestimated plants with highly effective antioxidant activity.
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