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Articles by R.M. Shaapan
Total Records ( 6 ) for R.M. Shaapan
  R.M. Shaapan , Amal M. Abo-ElMaaty , K.A. Abd El-Razik and S.M. Abd El-Hafez
  A total of 240 serum samples collected from horses of different ages, breeds, sexes and reproductive conditions used for sporting purposes and located at main horse farms in Cairo, Egypt, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection. PCR and serological assays revealed that, PCR showed the higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis (53.8%) followed by LAT (52.1%), MAT (50.8%) and lowest prevalence by ELISA (39.2%). Prevalence of T. gondii infection in relation to breed, sex and reproductive condition was determined. Prevalence was higher (73.1%) in imported breeds followed by native (58.5%) and lowest prevalence in Arabian breeds (44.4%). Higher prevalence (60.8%) was detected in females represented by 10.8, 12.4 and 29.9% in fillies, pregnant and repeat breeders, respectively. On other hand, lower prevalence (23.9%) was detected in males represented by 0, 8.7 and 15.2% in colts, stallions and racers, respectively. When the data of the serological tests were compared with that of the PCR, as a reference test for toxoplasmosis, MAT had the highest sensitivity (93.8%) followed by LAT (91.5%) and the lowest sensitivity by ELISA (71.3%). On the other hand ELISA had the highest specificity (92.8%) followed by MAT (91.9%) and the lowest specificity was by LAT (88.3%). The present study is the first time to adopt PCR and serological survey of T. gondii antibodies in sport horses in Egypt and suggests that MAT alone or with LAT can be used as a highly sensitive screening test followed by PCR as a specific confirmatory test for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in Equines. Also, the high prevalence observed indicate that the risk of infection from horses to people or other animals is very high.
  M.A. Hassanain , H.A. Elfadaly , R.M. Shaapan , N.A. Hassanain and A.M. Barakat
  Mutton signifies one of the most prevalent sources for human toxoplasmosis. However, sheep serological assays don't categorize the virulent strains initiating antibodies, so the biological bioassay of Egyptian mutton isolates with reference to their pathogenicity in both mice and kittens were done in this study for indicating to how extent their zoonotic bio-hazard. A total number of 280 of each sheep blood and tissue samples were collected during slaughtering at Cairo abattoir, Egypt. Sera assayed using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) and immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and their corresponding mutton samples were microscopically examined after pepsin digestion for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection. The sero-positive percent of the naturally infected sheep was 50.4 and 61.4 by LAT and ELISA, respectively, 47.9% of samples were confirmedly positive in both LAT and ELISA results. The microscopical examination revealed that only 28 out of 134 (20.9%) of the confirmed sero-positive animals by both tests were found harboring T. gondii tissue cysts in their mutton samples, while high percentage of confirmed sero-positve animals (79.1%) (106 out of 134) were biologically tissue cysts free mutton. Biological typing of the 28 T. gondii sheep isolates with reference to mice and kittens' bioassay indicated that 10.7, 50, 21.4 and 17.9% were type I, II, III and avirulent strains, respectively. The high T. gondii infection rate resulted in this study concludes that the feeding of under cooked mutton is a bad health habit as a source for human toxoplasmosis moreover; the T. gondii virulent strains obtained by mutton bioassay indicated that not all sero-positive sheep are connecting zoonotic bio-hazard through their mutton strains.
  R.M. Shaapan and A.A. Ghazy
  Portions of heart, liver, skeletal and diaphragmatic muscles obtained from 150 slaughtered horses at Giza-Zoo abattoir were used for bioassays in mice and cats. T. gondii tachyzoites were isolated successfully from the peritoneal exudates of the inoculated mice 6-8 days post inoculation with pooled horse tissues. Whereas, T. gondii tissue cysts containing bradyzoites were detected in the impression smears of mice brain on the 45th days or more post infection. The oocysts were detected in feces of cats 3-6 days post feeding on horse tissues containing tissue cysts. The oocysts became sporulated within 3-5 days in 2.5% Potassium dichromate. A total of 79 out of 150 horse meat samples were found to be infected with an incidence rate of 52.6 %. This is the first trial for isolation of T. gondii infective stages from horses in Egypt. Moreover, this study pointed out to the high infection rate of T. gondii in horse meat which may be considered as an important source of infection to wild zoo-animals in Egypt and humans in some countries if consumed raw or insufficiently cooked.
  W.S. Shell , M.A. Saad , K.A. Abd El-Razik , M.L. Sayed and R.M. Shaapan
  Brucellosis still represents a serious public health problem that results in significant morbidity and economic losses and regarded as one of the major zoonotic infections worldwide. Rough Brucella ovis strain (REO, 198) was used as antigens in routine and modified Rapid Slide Agglutination Test (RSAT) stained with Rose Bengal stain, Complement Fixation Test (CFT) and Agar Gel Precipitation Test (AGPT) for diagnosis of rough Brucella infected and vaccinated cattle and sheep in comparison with conventional RSAT incorporated with smooth S99 strain as antigen. The Rough RSAT using Brucella ovis as antigen showed a high sensitivity in identifying all experimentally B. ovis infected sheep and RB51 vaccinated cattle. Moreover, this antigen prepared with 0.1 M PBS (not 10% saline) showed negative results in 28 out of 30 naturally smooth Brucella infected sheep. On the contrary, cattle and sheep vaccinated with S19 and Rev-1 vaccines reacted positively with the rough as well as the conventional (smooth) Rose Bengal antigens. AGPT with rough antigens yielded the same results of RSAT in vaccinated RB51 cattle and experimentally B. ovis infected sheep whereas CFT was less sensitive. The current study advise the use of conventional RSAT either by modified or traditional way in parallel with the rough RSAT (prepared with 0.1 M PBS) as screening tests for routine diagnosis of ovine brucellosis followed by the AGPT as confirmatory test and moreover the rough RSAT can be used for identifying of RB51 vaccination in cattle.
  R.M. Shaapan , M.A. Hassanain and Fathia A.M. Khalil
  Blood was collected from goats and buffaloes slaughtered for food in various areas of the Giza province, Egypt. A Modified Agglutination Test (MAT) with cut-off value 1:25 was used to test sera for evidence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. Serum antibody prevalence was higher 44.3% (102 positive of 230 tested) for goats than 22.5% (36 positive of 160 tested) for buffaloes. The antibody prevalence in relation to sex and age for each species was determined. Prevalence was higher (63.3 and 27.9%) in female than (32.1 and 16.2%) in male goats and buffaloes, respectively. On other hand, higher prevalence (58 and 25.5%) was detected in aged goats (>1.5 years) and buffaloes (>4 years) than (32.8 and 14.5%) detected in younger goats (≤1.5 years) and buffaloes (≤4 years), respectively. The present study is the first to report serological evidence of T. gondii infection in Egyptian goats and water buffaloes by MAT and determined the effect of sex and age. Consequently the finding results obtained scope the public health significance of goat and buffalo's meat and milk as source of human infection.
  M.A. Hassanain , Fathia A.M. Khalil , K.A. AbdEl-Razik and R.M. Shaapan
  Cryptosporidium parvum is a ubiquitous zonootic protozoan parasite which is associated with severe acute diarrhoea in humans and animals. Diarrhoiec fecal samples collected from young cattle calves at different localites in Behira Province, Egypt were coproscopically examined concerning the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., oocysts. Small sized Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected of typical shape and measurements of the C. parvum oocysts with a total prevalence of 54.4% (higher prevalence 61.6% in calves less than 1 month of age while lower 38.2% in calves aged 1-2 month). Molecular characterization was done using nested PCR amplification and partial sequence analysis. The nested PCR gave the expected 1st (1325 bp) and the 2nd (825 bp) PCR products from all the examined Egyptian isolates. The DNA sequence alignments and BLAST search analysis of the of Egyptian isolates of Cryptosporidium revealed 100% homology between the 825 bp amplified fragment of Egyptian isolates and the counterpart of the 18S rDNA sequences of C. parvum deposited in Gene bank and proved that the 10 positive PCR isolates were Cryptosporidium parvum. The high prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum among calves obtained by this investigation has pointed to the existence of this zoonotic genotype and suggesting that there is a potential risk of Cryptosporidiosis as a zoonotic transmission between calves and humans in this region.
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