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Articles by R.K. Tiwari
Total Records ( 7 ) for R.K. Tiwari
  J.P. Pandey and R.K. Tiwari
  Insects represent almost all territories of the earth and account around 75% of total animal population. It is still ambiguous that being a cold blooded/poikilothermic organism, without acquired immune responses, how do they survive in all geographical regions of the world? Probably, it indicates its very strong innate immune responses i.e., cellular and humoral. Insect blood cells or hemocytes are the main component of cellular immune responses. They are biochemically very sensitive towards change and are the primary target of cellular defence system of insects and have proven their ability to mediate diverse immuno-defence processes against invading pathogens and other adverse conditions/stresses i.e., temperature, starvation, photoperiod, humidity etc. Therefore, in the present review, effort has been made to correlate various responses of hemocytes against the change, in order to propose hemocyte-based model in the form of catalogue to discern the health status and its future application in applied and biomedical sciences. Since hemocytes respond very instantly against change hence, it is expected that by using hemocyte catalogue as a pointer impact of several biotic and abiotic factors can be evaluated. Outcome of the present review will summarize the hemocytic response against adversaries/change in the form of catalogue for its potential use in applied and biomedical fields.
  J.P. Pandey , K. Jena , R.K. Tiwari and Alok Sahay
  Background and Objectives: Tasar silkworm is sericigenous insect which produces the unique quality silk. Loss occurring due to starvation is not quantified well at the level of immuno-oxidative and quantitative traits. Hence, the present study was designed to find out the effect of starvation on immuno-responses, oxidative damages, antioxidant defences and quantitative traits of tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta. Materials and Methods: The 6 days old V instar larvae were subjected to starvation stress and impact was evaluated on morphology, protein concentration, enzyme activity, immunological parameters, oxidative stress and cocoon characteristics. Results: A change in total hemocyte count and differential hemocyte count indicates its maintenance of homeostasis against starvation stress. Increased level of phenol oxidase and acid phosphatase was the sign of activation of intracellular phagocytic responses. Higher level of lipid peroxidation and total hydroperoxides signify the resultant oxidative stress in the starved specimen. Modulation of antioxidant enzymes indicates adaptive behaviour in the tissue against oxyradicals. Decreased levels of protein content, ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione shows their utilization during starvation stress. Conclusion: The data revealed that starvation modulates immunological responses, oxidative stress and hemocytic nuclear fragmentation as a result of cellular damage and thus adversely affect overall fitness and quantitative traits of tasar silkworm.
  A.K. Singh , R.K. Tiwari , D.R. Kanaujia , J.P. Pandey and P. Mishra
  The importance of prawn as one of the beneficial food items for man because of having easily digestive high protein and iron and a low fat content is well known. The river Ganga having diversified fish fauna is considered to be the back bone of capture fishery in India. The present study was conducted on the growth, maturation and breeding behavior of Ganga river prawn, Macrobrachium gangeticum in the middle stretch of river Ganga in and around Varanasi, India. Specimens, 65-205 mm in size, were recorded during May to October. Percentage of males was found dominant in the month of May whereas females in months, July to October. Maximum males were recorded in the size range of 166-205 mm. Prawns started breeding in May which continued till October.
  J.P. Pandey and R.K. Tiwari
  The red cotton bug, Dysdercus cingulatus, an important polyphagous pest, causes heavy loss to cotton and lady’s finger (bhindi) crops which badly affects the economy of poor farmers. In the present study, the impact of different concentrations of neem based insecticides (NBIs) on coupling, moulting, development, hemocyte, fecundity and egg-hatching of D. cingulatus was evaluated. Various concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5%) and doses (2.5 to 20 μL) of NBIs viz. neemark, multineem and neemazal were prepared by diluting them in acetone were applied topically on the dorsum of the body of nymphs and adults and eggs of different age groups. NBIs causes developmental abnormalities such as prolongation of nymphal periods, ecdysial stasis, formation of adultoids and adults with varied degrees of wing deformities. The delay in moulting of treated nymphs is found concentration, dose and stage dependent. The application of NBIs on cephalic and thoracic regions and on ventral surface of insects showed more sensitivity than on abdominal region and dorsal surface. The NBIs application interrupted the coupling and cause lessening of fecundity and egg-hatching also. Among aforesaid NBIs, neemazal treatment was somewhat more effective. In addition, significant reduction in Total Hemocyte Count (THC) and deformities in hemocyte morphology were also observed in NBIs treated insects. It is assumed that the phenomena like metamorphic developments, coupling and fecundity are controlled by Juvenile Hormone (JH) via regulating the release of allatotropic factor from the brain and all these effects of NBIs are stage specific and concentration and dose dependent. NBIs induced changes in hemocyte contour might be also regulated by the brain hormone.
  Vandana Shukla , O.P. Singh , G.R. Mishra and R.K. Tiwari
  Growth of research in the field of effective digital computing systems leads to the need of efficient digital design approaches. Reversible logic concept is the result of this necessity. This design approach creates low power efficient digital circuits with improved performance. In the CPU/ALU bus provides the path for data flow and covers major area of the CPU. As the conventional buses are irreversible in nature when data flows through these buses it consumes power and additional hardware is required to sink the generated heat. Moreover by designing a bus using reversible technology power requirement is decreased with the removal of need of heat sink. In this study, we focus upon the designing of common bus structure using reversible logic approach. Common bus structure provides an effective way to provide the facility of communication between computer subsystems. The proposed approach for reversible realization of common bus system is simulated and synthesized for ModelSim simulator and Xilinx Software, respectively.
  Suyog Pandey , J.P. Pandey and R.K. Tiwari
  The lemon butterfly, Papilio demoleus whose larvae are serious pest of citrus plant, causes potential threat to the citrus industry. Citrus trees are excellent source of vitamins and its fruits utilized directly by human being. Therefore, P. demoleus should be controlled in eco-friendly manner. Keeping hazardous effects of synthetic insecticides in mind the natural bio-pesticides are being tested here with reference to insects molting and hemocyte counts. In the present study, leaf extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Ageratum conyzoides and clove extract of Allium sativum were evaluated for their bio-efficacy against V instar larvae of P. demoleus. The leaf and clove extract of aforesaid plants were prepared by macerating and extracting them in small quantity of Double Distilled Water (DDW). Total Haemocyte Count (THC) and Differential Hemocyte Count (DHC) were conducted and results revealed significant reduction in THC as well as great deal of variation in relative percentage of hemocytes in comparison to their control. The abnormalities in morphogenetic development were exhibited by the production of larval-pupal intermediates, pharate adults and different degrees of wing abnormalities in imagoes. Plant extracts also caused reduction in larval body weight showing their anti-feedant properties. Relatively more significant reduction in body weight was found in Eucalyptus globulus treated larvae. These results revealed that the botanicals used in this study are very economical and eco-friendly to non-target organisms and human being. But these botanicals/bio-pesticides are hazardous to lemon butterfly thus challenging its pest status in the crop field.
  Ashok Kumar , V.M.S. Sriwastwa , S. Lata and R.K. Tiwari
  It is known that humidity enhances the growth of mites in carpets, mattresses and other household items. The association between exposure to house dust and diseases such as asthma, chronic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has been shown in many individuals. Large quantities of carpet dyes are used in carpet industry located in Eastern Uttar Pradesh India. Nearly 90% of the carpets are manufactured in Eastern Uttar Pradesh and remaining 10% is produced in Kashmir and other places of India. Therefore, this area is important in huge dyeing and washing industry in which nearly 760 metric tons of dyes and dye supporting chemicals as well as washing chemicals are used per year. Present study has been conducted to see the adverse health effects of carpet dye black T supra which is being greatly used in carpet industry. In the present study, Gram mixed with 20 mg kg-1 of b.wt. day-1 sub-lethal dose of Black T Supra carpet dye was fed to Rattus norvegicus for three months and the symptoms of dermatitis in the form of hair fall in patches on surface of body started from fifth week onward. The area of patches of hair fall increased between 6-12th weeks. In controls, such effect was not observed. In addition, a little increase in body weight, cataract in eyes and desperate walking in experimental animals were observed after fifth week of feeding Black T Supra dye. In some cases, the correlation between exposure to carpet dye black T supra and symptoms is obvious.
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