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Articles by R.K. Bramwell
Total Records ( 3 ) for R.K. Bramwell
  J.R. Moyle , R.F. Wideman , S.M. Whipple , D.E. Yoho and R.K. Bramwell
  Mortality often is much higher in male than in female broiler breeders (36.2% vs. 11.1%), making it necessary to introduce additional males during the breeding cycle. While it is known that males perform better on low protein diets, they usually are fed the same diet as the hens in order to reduce feed transportation costs and eliminate the chance of the hens receiving the wrong feed. Hen diets are high in Calcium (Ca) which may be detrimental to male performance and may cause kidney damage as the males excrete the excess Ca. In an effort to understand the extent of kidney damage that occurs in male broiler breeders, 136 males that had been on commercial breeder hen diets for 41 or 42 wks were euthanized and their kidneys evaluated. Data collected included body weight, left and right kidney weights and the incidence of macroscopically visible uroliths within the ureters or ureteral branches. The bilateral symmetry of the two kidneys (heavy:light kidney weight ratio) was assessed as an indicator of subclinical kidney damage. The results revealed that only 55.6% of the males had kidneys that were bilaterally symmetrical (within 10% by weight). Left kidneys were significantly heavier than right kidneys (10.07 vs. 9.26 g, respectively) and the left kidney was larger in 76.3% of the birds. Uroliths were found in 7.4% (10/136) of the males. These results indicate that broiler breeder males fed high levels of Ca develop kidney asymmetry and urolithiasis, which can contribute to their high mortality levels.
  G.Q. Liu , A.M. Donoghue , J.R. Moyle , I. Reyes-Herrera , P.J. Blore , R.K. Bramwell , D.E. Yoho , K. Venkitanarayanan and D.J. Donoghue
  Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of bacterial human acute gastroenteritis. These microorganisms are highly prevalent in poultry semen and may contribute to vertical transmission of the pathogen between the breeder hen and offspring. Unfortunately, strategies to reduce or eliminate these pathogens in poultry semen negatively impact sperm viability. Many plant essential oils have been reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. The objective of our study was to examine the efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde, the main component in cinnamon oil, to reduce Campylobacter concentrations in chicken semen. Semen was collected from roosters, pooled and diluted with semen extender, then divided into treatments: negative control (no Campylobacter, no trans-cinnamaldehyde), positive control (inoculated with Campylobacter, no trans-cinnamaldehyde) or treatments containing concentrations of 0.24, 0.12, 0.06, 0.03 or 0.015% trans-cinnamaldehyde. Treatment groups receiving Campylobacter were then immediately inoculated with ~105 cfu/mL of a wild-type Campylobacter jejuni and held at 4°C or 23°C for 2 h. Semen was stored at 4°C for an additional 24 h and assessed for Campylobacter concentrations and sperm viability at 2, 6 and 24 h utilizing SYBR 14/Propidium iodide live/dead stain and fluorescent microscopy. The study was replicated eight times. After 2h at 23°C a 2 log reduction in Campylobacter counts were observed in the 0.12 and 0.24% trans-cinnamaldehyde treatment groups compared to positive controls. In the 4°C treatments, no differences were observed between treatments and controls after 2 h. Samples evaluated after 24 h incubation in vitro at 4°C, showed significant reductions of Campylobacter counts in the 0.06, 0.03 or 0.015% trans-cinnamaldehyde treatments groups, while the 0.12 and 0.24% groups eliminated detectable Campylobacter counts. Sperm viability remained at 80% or above for all treatment groups. Trans-cinnamaldehyde reduced Campylobacter in semen, without detrimentally affecting sperm viability and might provide a practical solution to eliminate Campylobacter in poultry semen after in vitro storage.
  J.A. England , J.R. Moyle , D.E. Yoho , R.K. Bramwell , R.D. Ekmay , R. Kriseldi and C.N. Coon
  The effect of pullet growth curve on body conformation and subsequent reproductive performance and effect of breeder feed protein level on reproductive performance was determined. The cost effectiveness of the different programs was evaluated. Cobb 700e pullets were reared from day of age in floor pens. Each pen was assigned to one of two growth curves from 16 weeks of age to housing at 21 weeks of age. One growth curve followed a standard (SD) body weight curve and a second followed a lighter (LI) body weight curve. At 23 weeks of age, half of the hens from each of the growth curves were assigned to one of two breeder diets. Half of the hens were fed a low (LO)-protein (14%) breeder diet and half were fed a higher (HI)-protein breeder diet (16%) during the production phase. Pullet growth curve significantly affected body weight through 30 weeks of age. The protein level of the breeder feed significantly affected body weight at 35 and 40 weeks of age. Pullet growth curve affected body conformation, but did not affect age of first egg. Pullet growth curve did not affect egg weight. Protein level of the breeder feed significantly affected egg weight; hens fed the HI-protein diet laid heavier eggs. Egg production was not affected by pullet rearing growth curve (p = 0.0845) or protein level (p = 0.7348) of the breeder feed. Feeding a LO-protein diet resulted in feed cost savings. The feed cost of SD reared hens fed LO-protein diet was $0.03227 per hen less than for those fed HI-protein diets. The feed cost of LI reared hens fed LO-protein diet was $0.3616 per hen less than for those fed HI-protein diet.
 
 
 
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