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Articles by R.J. Buhr
Total Records ( 2 ) for R.J. Buhr
  J.A. Cason , R.J. Buhr , A. Hinton , Jr. , M.E. Berrang and N.A. Cox
  Lactic-acid-producing bacterial cultures were applied to the skin of live broilers 24 hours before slaughter to determine whether inoculation with the cultures could affect the numbers of bacteria that are normally found on the skin of processed broiler carcasses. The cultures contained 10,000 to 100,000 cfu/mL and were suspended in 250 mL of a pH 6.0 nutrient medium (including glucose, peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, a surfactant, and salts) intended to enhance the survival and growth of the cultures. With broilers suspended by the feet, feathers were moved aside and the liquid suspension was sprayed directly on the skin. Sprayed broilers were then returned to a pen. In each of three replications, 4 six-wk-old broilers were sprayed and 4 broilers were kept as untreated controls. The following day, broilers were processed in a research processing facility and defeathered carcasses were sampled by rinsing for 1 min in 200 mL of peptone water after removal of heads and feet. Coliforms, E. coli, lactic-acid bacteria, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were enumerated by standard methods. After removal of aliquots for plating, the remaining sample volume was enriched to detect Salmonella. No differences were found in log10(cfu/mL) of coliforms, E. coli, or lactic-acid bacteria between the treated and control carcasses. Salmonella bacteria were present on some carcasses, but with no difference between treatments. Campylobacter spp. were present in only one replication, so numbers of Campylobacter could not be analyzed statistically. Spraying lactic-acid-producing bacteria with nutrients on the skin of live broilers on the day before processing appears to have no effect on numbers of bacteria that are present on the skin after defeathering.
  A.C. Murry , Jr. , A. Hinton , Jr. and R.J. Buhr
  This study was conducted to examine the effect of feeding a botanical probiotic (Feed Free™) containing Lactobacillus on growth performance of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 d of age. At 56 d, five broilers per pen were killed and processed to determine bacteria populations in the ceca, cloaca, and carcass rinse. The dietary treatments were the basal diet with coccidiostat and antibiotic (control), basal diet without coccidiostat and antibiotic (negative control) and basal diet supplemented with 0.10% probiotic. The results showed that body weights and average weight gain were not different (P > 0.05) due to treatment. Feed intake and feed to gain ratio from 22 to 42 d of age were lower (P < 0.001) for broilers fed 0.10% probiotic than broilers fed the control diets. The population of Lactobacilli recovered from cloaca contents was higher (P < 0.002) and the population of Clostridium perfringens recovered from cloaca contents was lower (P < 0.02) for broilers fed the 0.10% probiotic diet than for those fed the control diets. The population C. jejuni recovered from carcass rinses for broilers fed the diet supplemented with the probiotic tended (P < 0.11) to be lower when compared to the negative control. These results suggest that diets supplemented with the botanical probiotic containing Lactobacillus supports growth for broilers similar to the basal diet supplemented with antibiotic and coccidiostat, and with lower feed to gain ratio. Also, the botanical probiotic may reduce C. perfringens and C. jejuni in market-age broilers.
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