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Articles by R.E. Akhigbe
Total Records ( 10 ) for R.E. Akhigbe
  R.E. Akhigbe , M.O. Azeez , S.F. Ige , I.P. Oyeyipo , F.O. Ajao and A.O. Soladoye
  This study examined the effect of administration of combined Oral Contraceptive (OC) on blood viscosity and associated hemorheological parameters such as plasma viscosity, Pack Cell Volume (PCV), serum albumin, fibrinogen and total plasma proteins. Female wistar rats aged 7-10 weeks were selected and randomly distributed into two groups, the control group and the OC-treated group, with 20 rats in each group. The rats in both groups were fed with standard rat chow. After two weeks of acclimatization, rats in OC-treated group received OC therapy (containing 1.0 μg ethinyloestradiol and 10.0 μg of norgestrel), while rats in the control group remained on standard rat chow. After 7 weeks of treatment, hemorheological parameters were determined using standard hemorheological techniques described by Dacies and Lewis. Unpaired t-test was performed in all data with the significant level set at p<0.05. There was no significant change in level of fibrinogen, while there was significant increase in blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, PCV, serum albumin concentration and total plasma proteins in OC-treated rats. This finding suggests that increase blood viscosity and plasma viscosity seen in OC therapy is associated with an increase in PCV and serum albumin level.
  R.E. Akhigbe , S.F. Ige , G.J. Adegunlola , M.O. Adewumi and M.O. Azeez
  This study assessed the prevalence of malaria parasitemia and severe malaria and their association with haemoglobin genotypes and ABO blood groups. Medical records of 501 students who attended or were admitted during the period of study in LAUTECH Teaching Hospital were used. Subjects with sickle cell disease (HbSS, HbSC) showed the highest prevalence of both malaria parasitemia and severe malaria followed by subjects with haemoglobin AA. Sickle cell trait subjects (HbAS, HbAC) had the lowest prevalence. Also subjects with blood group O had a higher prevalence of malaria parasitemia but a lower prevalence of severe malaria when compared with the non O blood groups. The association of sickle cell disease with high prevalence of malaria parasitemia and severe malaria confirms the susceptibility of the sickle cell gene in the homozygous state to easy fragility of Red Blood Cells (RBCs). The association of blood group O with less prevalence of severe malaria confirms the protective role of antigen O in impairing rosetting and vascular cytoadhesion of parasitized RBCs. The association of blood group O with high prevalence of malaria parasitemia might suggest that O antigen is more susceptible to malaria infection than non O antigens but less susceptible to severe malaria.
  R.E. Akhigbe , J.O. Bamidele and O.L. Abodunrin
  HIV/AIDS has assumed an alarming rate since it was identified and reported in Nigeria. About 3.5 million Nigerians were reported to be living with HIV/AIDS in 2001. This increased to 3.6 million in 2003 and 6 million in 2005. However, the 2008 HIV National Sentinel Seroprevalence Survey among antenatal clinic attendees in Nigeria revealed that 2.9 million people are living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria, with the least prevalence in Ekiti (1.0%), the highest prevalence in Benue (10.6%) and Kwara (the studied area) with 1.8%. This study aims at assessing a more comprehensive seroprevalence of HIV/AIDS among the general population in Kwara state, Nigeria. This is a retrospective study. Health records on HIV/AIDS of the Kwara State Ministry of Health, HIV/AIDS Control Units were used. The health records comprise of reports from the 16 health facilities providing HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) Services in the 16 Local Government Areas of the state. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS within the study period among the general population was 5.39%, with near similar prevalence in both sexes (male was 5.47% and female was 5.37%). Results from this study also revealed that more female used the HCT Services in the health facilities. The study shows a higher HIV prevalence among the general population (than the antenatal clinic attendees), but a decline in HIV prevalence in the study population between March, 2007 and December, 2008. HIV prevalence was not different in both sexes, suggesting that both sexes carry equal burden of the disease.
  R.E. Akhigbe , S.F. Ige , A.O. Afolabi , P.I. Oyeyipo , F.O. Ajao and F.A. Ajayi
  This study was designed to investigate the effect of combined oral contraceptive (OC) on water consumption, urinary output and serum levels of sodium, potassium and calcium. Twenty female rats were used. Rats were distributed into two groups, control and OC-treated groups, with ten rats in each group. OC-treated group took combined OC, containing 1.0 μg ethinyloestradiol and 10.0 μg norgestrel intragastrically for nine weeks. Both groups fed on standard rat chow and were allowed free access to water throughout the nine weeks of experiment. Water consumption and urinary output was noted and recorded during the experiment period. After the experiment period, rats were sacrificed and serum levels of sodium and potassium were determined in both groups using the flame photometry method, while serum calcium level was determined in both groups using cresolphthalein complexone. There was significant decrease in water consumption and urinary output. No significant differences were found in the mean serum levels of sodium, potassium and calcium.
  S.F. Ige , R.E. Akhigbe , A.A. Adewale , J.A. Badmus , S.B. Olaleye , F.O. Ajao , W.A. Saka and O.Q. Owolabi
  This study aims at investigating the effect of pre-treatment, co-treatment and post-treatment with Allium cepa extract, AcE, on cadmium-induced renal toxicity and confirming possible mechanisms by which Allium cepa extract reduce/restore cadmium induces nephrotoxicity. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were used. They were divided into 5 groups (n = 6). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally administered 1.5 mL kg-1 BW of 0.3 mg L-1 of cadmium sulphate for 3 days. Group 3 was pretreated with 1.0 mL kg-1 BW of AcE for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal administration of 1.5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of 0.3 mg L-1 of cadmium sulphate. Group 4 was co-treated with 1.5 mL kg-1 BW of 0.3 mg L-1 of cadmium sulphate for 3 days and 1.0 mL kg-1 BW of AcE for 8 weeks simultaneously. Group 5 was post-treated with 1.0 mL kg-1 BW of cadmium sulphate for 8 weeks following a 3 day course of 1.5 mL kg-1 BW of 0.3 mg L-1 of cadmium sulphate intraperitoneal administration. All groups were allowed free access to standard rat chow and water throughout the period of experiment. After the experiment period, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and blood sample were obtained via cardiac puncture. The kidneys were also excised. Changes in body and kidney weights were determined. Renal weight index, 24 h urine volume, renal clearance and lipid peroxidation status were also determined. There was no significant change in body and kidney weight and renal weight index in all groups. Renal clearance and 24 h urine volume were significantly reduced in group 2 rats when compared to all groups. Renal clearance was also reduced in group 3 and 5, though this decrease was only significant when compared with the control group. Plasma and tissue SOD activities were significantly increased in group 2. Plasma and tissue MDA levels were significantly increased in group 2, 3 and 5. This study shows that cadmium induces nephrotoxicity by impairing renal functions and stimulating lipid peroxidation. Pre-treatment and post-treatment of AcE in cadmium-treated rats produced mild protective potentials. However, co-treatment with AcE during cadmium administration showed significant antioxidative potentials in preventing cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity.
  W.A. Saka , R.E. Akhigbe , O.S. Ishola , E.A. Ashamu , O.T. Olayemi and G.E. Adeleke
  There is a lack of reliable hepatotherapeutic drugs in modern medicine in the management of alcohol/drug-induced liver damage. Aloe vera extract has been used in folklore medicine for its medicinal values. This study evaluates the hepatotherapeutic activity of aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; the negative control, positive control and the extract-treated groups. The negative control received only distilled water daily. The positive control received alcohol, while the extract-treated group received aqueous extract of Aloe vera and alcohol. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the positive control and extract-treated rats with alcohol. The hepatotherapeutic effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine transaminases and liver histopathology. Alanine transaminase activities were comparable in all groups. Alcohol treatment alone significantly (p<0.05) increased total serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities. Alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction was abrogated by Aloe vera extract. Histopathological examination revealed that alcohol induced hepatic damage. Aloe vera treatment maintained hepatic architecture similar to that seen in the control. This study shows that aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel is hepatotherapeutic and thus lends credence to the use of the plant in folklore medicine in the management of alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction.
  W.A. Saka , R.E. Akhigbe , O.M. Azeez and T.R. Babatunde
  High malaria burden has led to the increase use of insecticides in the tropics and subtropics. This study thus aimed at assessing the haematological effects and associated haemostatic alteration of pyrethroid insecticide exposure using experimental animal model. Rats of comparable ages and weights were randomized into four groups (A-D). Rats in groups B, C and D were exposed to pyrethroid insecticide by inhalation for 1, 2 and 3 min daily respectively for three weeks. Rats in group A (control) were not exposed. Haematological and haemostatic variables were comparable in all groups (<0.05). Results from the study show that minimal exposure to pyrethroids is safe.
  W.A. Saka , R.E. Akhigbe , O.S. Oyekunle , O.O. Adedipe and O.A. Akinwande
  Malaria infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality especially in the tropics and subtropics. This has led to the increased prophylactic use of pyrethroid insecticides and/or Amodiaquine (Aq) to combat the parasitic protozoan infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative haemodynamic effects of pyrethroid insecticide and amodiaquine in rats. Experimental rats were randomly allocated into seven groups of five rats in each. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were exposed to pyrethroid by inhalation for 1, 2 and 3 min, respectively, while groups 4, 5 and 6 were administered Aq per oral at 5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 b.wt., respectively. Control rats were neither exposed to pyrethroid nor administered Aq. Pyrethroid insecticide led to reduced systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, but increased pulse pressure. Aq treatment did not cause any significant variation in haemodynamic variables. Heart rate was comparable in all groups. Results from the study provide extended safety/toxicity profile for pyrethroid use and Aq treatment. Aq showed no cardiotoxic potential, while pyrethroids have hypotensive effect. It is thus recommended that exposure to pyrethroids should be minimized.
  S.F. Ige , R.E. Akhigbe and A.O. Akinsanya
  Aging is a process of changes that occur within a system over a period of time. It is due to the variation in the continuous activities that maintain life. Changes that occur in aging can be seen in various parts of the body system but most especially in the skin. This study reviews the role and mechanism of Advanced Glycation End products (AGES) in skin wrinkle formation. Literature searches were conducted. Literatures concerning hyperglycemia and skin wrinkles were used focusing on the mechanisms of AGES. This study reveals that AGEs increases the stiffness and reduces the elasticity of the skin increases oxidative stress with resultant destruction of skin fibroblasts by increasing vascular permeability, inhibiting vascular dilatation and enhancing oxidative stress.
  R.E. Akhigbe , S.F. Ige , A.O. Afolabi , O.M. Azeez , G.J. Adegunlola and J.O. Bamidele
  In view of the association of various haemoglobin genotypes and blood groups with different pathological conditions and the risk of alloimmunization from allogeneic blood transfusion seen in patients with sickle cell disease, the incidence of haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood groups in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Nigeria, was assessed. This is a retrospective study using medical records of 1122 students (between 18-25 years old) of LAUTECH. Out of the 1122 students, 71.03% were HbAA, 22.19% HbAS, 5.26% HbAC, 0.54% HbSS, 0.80% HbSC and 0.18% HbCC. No incidence of HbSS, HbSC and HbCC in male. The frequencies of A, B, AB and O blood groups were 21.30, 22.73, 2.85 and 53.12%, respectively. The 93.32% were Rhesus positive (Rh+), while the remaining 6.68% were Rhesus negative (Rh¯). Results from this study show a low prevalence of abnormal haemoglobin variants. Blood group O was most predominant, while blood group AB was least dominant. In conclusion, this study shows that there is a decline in the prevalence of haemoglobinopathies in the studied area. Also, routine haemolysin test should be conducted on every group O blood before blood transfusion to reduce the risk of transfusion reaction since some group O blood, which is the predominant blood group, is known to contain immune haemolytic antibodies.
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