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Articles by R.B. Abdullah
Total Records ( 13 ) for R.B. Abdullah
  A.A. Anna , M.N. Hisham , W.E. Wan Khadijah and R.B. Abdullah
  A strategize step in oocyte recovery is important and beneficial in producing successful production of high-quality Cumulus Oocyte-Complexes (COC) for in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture (IVMFC), nuclear transfer and other emerging technologies. Experiments were conducted to compare Oocyte Recovery (OR) between Laparoscopic Ovum Pick-Up (LOPU) and ovarian slicing and to evaluate the effects of OR cycle, hormone stimulation, oestrus synchronization, breeds, liveweight and age of goats on the quantity and quality of oocytes obtained. In Experiment 1, oocytes were recovered from abattoir-derived ovaries by the slicing method. The ovaries were transported to the laboratory for immediate harvesting. The slicing method yielded significantly (p<0.05) larger number of oocytes per ovary than LOPU (22.53±2.78 vs. 6.10±0.46). However, the proportion of Grade A oocytes was highest from the LOPU technique (30.51±4.14) compared to the slicing method (19.07±3.57). LOPU resulted in good quality Cumulus Oocytes Complexes (COC) with more than 5 layers of cumulus cells. Experiment 2 consisted of three OR cycles (OR-1, OR-2 or OR-3); four durations of oestrus synchronization using CIDR (Day-10, -14 , -17 or -21); three goat breeds (Boer Crossbred, Mixed breed or Katjang); 4 age groups (Young, Mature, Old or Very Old) and 4 levels of body weight (20, 21-29, 30-37 or 38 kg). Goats were synchronized using Control Internal Drug Release (CIDR) combined with 125 μg Estrumate and hyperstimulated with 70 mg FSH and 400 IU hCG after the removal of CIDR 24 h later. There was no significant effect of OR cycle, CIDR removal goat breed, age or body weight on the total number of oocytes recovered per ovary. Katjang goats yielded a higher proportion of Grade A oocytes compared to Boer Crossbreds and mixed breeds which had a higher proportion of Grade C oocytes (p<0.05). Age and weight of animals had no significant effect on the quality of oocytes recovered. Grade A and B oocytes were obtained in OR-1, whilst the repetition of LOPU resulted in an increment of Grade C oocytes in OR-2 and OR-3, respectively. Day-10 and -21 gave the highest cumulative percentage of 58 and 64% for Grade A and B oocytes, respectively. Under the conditions of the experiment, LOPU yielded better quality oocytes from the Katjang goats using less or no OR repetition, with oestrus synchronization at 10 or 21-Day.
  M.M. Rahman , R.B. Abdullah , W.E. Wan Khadijah , T. Nakagawa and R. Akashi
  The high costs of commercial concentrates limit livestock production in South-east Asia. The efficient use of local feed resources may minimize the costs and improve the productivity. Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) contains moderate levels of protein and energy, which is considered sufficient to meet the requirements of most ruminants. However, its protein degradability in the rumen is high resulting in losing its function as protein source for ruminant. This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of feeding molasses protected PKC and soya waste on intake, nutrient digestibility and growth performance of young female goats. Eight goats were divided into 2 groups and allocated to respective feeding treatments. The treatments were T1 = napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)+1.0% commercial pellet of live weight (LW) and T2 = napier grass+1.0% PKC of LW+100 g molasses+55 g soya waste. The results indicated that the T1 treatment increased (p<0.05) napier grass Dry matter (DM) intake (370 vs. 295 g day-1) compared to T2 treatment but the total intakes of DM (584 vs. 668 g day-1), organic matter (OM) (532 vs. 585 g day-1), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) (308 vs. 344 g day-1) and crude protein (CP) (59.2 vs. 58.9 g day-1) were similar (p>0.05) for both treatments, respectively. The T1 treatment also increased (p<0.05) apparent digestibility of DM (64.1 vs. 56.3%), OM (67.3 vs. 58.9%), NDF (55.9 vs. 45.2%) and CP (68.4 vs. 52.1%) compared to T2 treatment, but they had no effect (p>0.05) on average daily gain (59.0 vs. 72.1 g day-1) and feed conversion ratio (10.4 vs. 9.6), respectively. It is concluded that supplementing a napier grass-based diet with molasses protected PKC and soya waste can be used as source of protein and energy, exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.
  M.M. Rahman , M. Ikeue , M. Niimi , R.B. Abdullah , W.E. Wan Khadijah , K. Fukuyama and O. Kawamura
  A survey of oxalate and its related mineral contents in selected fodder plants was conducted in two regions of subtropical Okinawa, Japan and of tropical Savar and Shahzadpur, Bangladesh. A total of 31 samples were taken from 13 fodder species in Okinawa, Southern part of Japan and of 63 samples from 27 fodder species in Bangladesh. The data of both regions revealed that the majority of fodder plants accumulated lower contents of oxalate than the critical level for toxicity at more than 20 g kg-1 DM, while few fodder species (Pennisetum purpureum and Brachiaria mutica) in Bangladesh and only Setaria sphacelata in southern part of Japan reached this critical level. In most of the cases, no relationship was found between oxalate and mineral contents in the plants tested. The results from the present study demonstrate that the oxalate content in tropical fodder species may vary in a wide range, mainly depending on plant species. To be noted is that some fodder species could accumulate oxalate at so high content as might be toxic to ruminants in certain conditions.
  A.N.M.A. Rahman , R.B. Abdullah and W.E. Wan-Khadijah
  Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) that enables mature oocytes to be generated ex vivo. In vitro production (IVP) of embryos is currently the central focus in livestock industry including goat industry. For any successful IVP program in goat and other livestock, artificial removal of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from antral follicles and culturing them in essentially standard cell culture conditions or IVM until the maturity is a primary requirement. Therefore, it is very important two know what changes really occur to goat oocytes during IVM. As with in vivo, goat oocytes must undergo both nuclear and ooplasmic maturation for normal fertilization and embryonic development when cultured in vitro. Various locally produced factors work as co-regulators of folliculogenesis and oocyte nuclear and ooplasmic maturation in addition to extrinsic regulation by gonadotrophins and metabolic hormones. Cumulus cells (CCs) surrounding the oocyte play an important role in IVM. The morphology of the cumulus investment is commonly used as selection criteria prior to IVM which greatly influence to the maturity of goat oocytes. Embryo development is also influenced by the events occurring during oocyte maturation. Therefore, it is essential to know those events occurring during goat oocyte maturation in vitro. Various factors such as follicle size; follicular fluid or cells; hormones, serum, growth factors or vitamins in the IVM medium, age of the donor goat and the culture conditions are involved for successful IVM of goat oocytes. The current review describes the criteria and factors affecting maturation of goat oocytes in vitro.
  A.N. Md. Aminoor Rahman , R.B. Abdullah and W.E. Wan-Khadijah
  Oocytes are the main raw materials for in vitro embryo production (IVP) experiments. Therefore, the success of any IVP program in goat production, either in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) largely depends on the continuous supply of quality oocytes in optimum quantity. A number of methods are currently used for Oocyte Recovery (OR) from live or slaughtered goats. Although, abattoir is the most easy and cheapest source of oocytes, however, in certain countries especially in Malaysia, abattoir source is extremely limited due to low slaughtering activities as a consequence of shortage of breeding stock. In Malaysia normally older goats or goats those are culled for breeding are slaughtered for meat. Therefore, the quality of oocytes recovered from ovaries of these goats is generally lower. On the contrary, OR from live goats using laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) technique provides many advantages, for example, OR can be repeated 3-5 times in the same goat at interval as short as a week or less, OR can be done in prepubertal and aged goats, if prepubertal goat is used for OR then generation intervals will be reduced, LOPU coupled with IVP can become an efficient method of early propagation of valuable goats and LOPU can overcome limitations frequently associated with MOET. Therefore, LOPU can be an alternative and efficient OR method in goat not only for Malaysia but also for other countries. The current study will discuss oocyte recovery methods with special reference to LOPU and grading of recovered oocytes in goats.
  A.N.M.A. Rahman , R.B. Abdullah , W.E. Wan-Khadijah , A.N.M.A. Rahman , R.B. Abdullah and W.E. Wan-Khadijah
  A.N.M.A. Rahman , R.B. Abdullah and W.E. Wan-Khadijah
  K. Noor Azlina , W.E. Wan Khadijah and R.B. Abdullah
  Fresh sperm of African catfish were analysed with the aim to determine sperm movement characteristics based on individual fish body weight. Three Body Weight (BW) of fish were grouped as small (<1 kg), medium (1-1.5 kg) and large (>1.5 kg). The fish was sacrificed (euthanasia) and semen was collected by perforation of the testis. Large Body Weight (BW) of African catfish gave the highest fresh sperm total motility (82.40±4.59%) followed by medium body weight (51.64±9.82%) and small body weight (40.40±12.16%). In sperm velocity distributions, the values for rapid, medium, slow and static velocity for fresh sperm were ranged from 14.00±6.63 to 25.80±4.97, 5.60±2.32 to 15.40±2.82, 20.80±6.49 to 41.20±5.18 and 17.60±4.59 to 59.60±12.16%, respectively. The values of VAP (83.34±9.31 μm sec-1), VSL (73.44±11.60 μm sec-1) and VCL (108.12±5.51 μm sec-1) for small body weight group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the large body weight group (49.70±6.42, 41.90±4.94 and 74.60±9.47 μm sec-1, respectively). It is concluded that larger body weight of the fish gives better sperm quality compared to medium and small BW.
  R.K. Raja Ili Airina , A.R. Mohd Nizam , R.B. Abdullah and W.E. Wan Khadijah
  The necessity in detecting pregnancy particularly estimating the gestation period in goat is undeniable. This objectives of this study were to observe images of fetus and fetal-related images in goats throughout pregnancy period, to test the reliability of fetal counting using Real-time B mode ultrasound, to measure and then to compare the development of fetal heart size in both single and twin pregnancies, to compare the changes in heart echogenicity in both single and twin pregnancies in does and to estimate the accuracy of pregnancy detection as well as age related pregnancy structures using ultrasonography. Structures were detected during gestation period including sac, fetus, fetal heart, amniotic fluid, uterine wall, ribs, spinal cord, fetal organ and placentomes. Changes in fetal heart echogenicity and area throughout both single and twin pregnancy were determined and evaluated using ultrasound scanning. Equations to estimate age of gestation were derived from polynomial and linear regression between gestational age and heart area in does for single and twin pregnancies. Blind test was conducted on polynomial and linear relationships between heart area size and gestational age. For polynomial relationship, 65, 69 and 92% of pregnant does delivered within ±1, ±2 and ±3 weeks of the delivery dates, respectively. Meanwhile, linear relationship gave 62, 69 and 77%, respectively. In conclusion, sonographic fetometry of fetal heart size is reliable to estimate the age of gestation in goat.
  A.B. Ainul Bahiyah , W.E. Wan Khadijah and R.B. Abdullah
  This study evaluated the efficiency of direct plunging and vitrification techniques in preserving mouse embryos at various preimplantation stages. Embryos were from superovulated ICR female mice. In direct plunging, embryos were equilibrated in EG (4.0 M), sucrose (0.25 M), BSA (4%), loaded into straw and plunged into LN2. The straw was thawed in water bath (37°C) and embryos were equilibrated in sucrose (0.5 M), BSA (4%). In vitrification, embryos were equilibrated with EG (7.5%), DMSO (7.5%) with EG (15%), DMSO (15%) and loaded onto cryoleaf. The cryoleaf was plunged into LN2. Embryos were warmed in sucrose (1.0 M), sucrose (0.5 M), washing solution and in modified WM medium. Frozen-thawed/vitrified-warmed embryos were cultured in modified WM medium in 5% CO2 incubator (37°C). Some embryos were transferred into pseudopregnant CBA/ca females for in vivo viability assessment. Vitrification gave higher survival rates than direct plunging technique at all developmental stages studied. No significant differences in the percentage of live-birth from direct plunging (22.40±4.40%), vitrification (29.80±9.00%) and control embryos (28.83±3.25%).
  A.N.M.A. Rahman , R.B. Abdullah and W.E. Wan-Khadijah
  The study was intended to review the recent developments and advances of estrus synchronization and superovulation protocols in goats with a view to improve oocytes/embryo recovery for In Vitro Production (IVP) efficiencies. Although a number of estrus synchronizing protocols has been developed in goat, the most widely used one is the treatment of progesterone for 9-11 days followed by a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin administered in the period 48h prior to removal of intravaginal sponge. Until now, Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) device and subcutaneous implants are more preferable than sponges. Ovulation in goat can be synchronized more precisely by administering Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) around the time of estrus that improves the success of fixed-time Artificial Insemination (AI) and oocytes or embryos collection at a controlled stage. Superovulation is the hormonal treatment for increasing a large number of oocytes that ultimately accelerate genetic improvement in any species. Generally an exogenous follicle-stimulating gonadotrophin is administered that mimics the effect of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) near the end of the luteal phase of the cycle (9-11 days) or around 48 h before the end of the synchronizing treatments. The major commercial products applied are equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG) or Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG) and FSH. This review paper describes estrus synchronization, ovarian superovulation as well as the normal physiology of estrous cycle and ovulation in goats.
  A.N.M.A. Rahman , R.B. Abdullah and W.E. Wan-Khadijah
  Embryo in vitro Production (IVP) and associated Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in goat, e.g., estrus synchronization and superovulation, Laparoscopic Ovum Pick-up (LOPU), in vitro Maturation (IVM), in vitro Fertilization (IVF), Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) and in vitro Culture (IVC) attained significant attention in the recent years. However, for the success in any IVP protocols in goat sound knowledge of physiology of gametogenesis, fertilization and early embryogenesis in vivo is crucial because in vivo information form the basis and guide for any in vitro experiment. Unlike human, laboratory animals, cattle and sheep, fewer studies have been conducted in gametogenesis, fertilization and early embryo development in goat. Data for sheep and cattle are mostly used as a basis for goat IVP studies. Therefore, the current study is intended to review gametogenesis, sperm oocyte interaction, fertilization and early embryogenetic process in mammals with special reference to goat.
  M.M. Rahman , M. Tateyama , M. Niimi , R.B. Abdullah , W.E. Wan Khadijah and O. Kawamura
  Oxalate concentration in forage plants is important, because it results mineral deficiency in ruminants. Data on oxalate concentration in forage plants in conjunction with cutting and uncutting conditions throughout the growing period are limited. This study was aimed to investigate the changes in oxalate and some mineral concentrations of setaria (Setaria sphacelata). The plants were harvested at different stages (vegetative, boot, pre-flowering, flowering and seed) of maturity and at about 50 cm in length of regrowth (second to sixth cuttings) for evaluation of soluble oxalate, insoluble oxalate and some mineral concentrations. Soluble oxalate and total oxalate concentrations, as well as mineral concentrations, decreased with advancing maturity. Both oxalate concentrations (soluble or insoluble) were higher in leaf compared to stem. Soluble oxalate and total oxalate concentrations of regrowth were the highest at third cutting and lowest at sixth cutting. Insoluble oxalate concentration of regrowth was almost similar in all cuttings, except for the sixth cutting. The highest concentrations of potassium, sodium and magnesium of regrowth were observed at third cutting, while the highest concentration of calcium was observed at sixth cutting. A relationship between oxalate and mineral concentrations was partially observed. Results suggest that cutting materials of setaria from June to October could achieve oxalate levels that are toxic to ruminants.
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