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Articles by R.A.O. Gabriel-Ajobiewe
Total Records ( 3 ) for R.A.O. Gabriel-Ajobiewe
  R.A.O. Gabriel-Ajobiewe
  This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mixed cultures on the nutritional and antinutritional content of combined fermented jack beans. The combined role played by individually selected microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) involved in the natural fermentation of jack beans, under controlled environment was investigated. One hundred gramme of ground, samples were inoculated with the mixed cultures under aseptic condition using 1 mL of each inoculum and fermentation allowed to take place under controlled environment of temperature of 40°C for the liquid state fermentation (with bacteria being the inoculum) for 7 days. Thereafter the fungi were inoculated aseptically for the commencement of the solid state phase of the combined fermentation for another 7 days at the temperature of 30°C. The inocula range between 3-7 species in number. Physical sensory changes, fermentation parameters, proximate and antinutritional composition were determined during fermentation. The total titratable acidity values of the multiple starter culture fermenting substrates increased from 0.04-0.43%. While the pH values decreased from 6.5 to 4.3. The higher the number of species used as inoculums, the more acceptable the fermented samples (in terms of sensory properties). Irrespective of the number of species used in the fermentation, there was a significant increase in the crude protein from 26.20-39.82 g/100 g, while the fat (11.95-4.33 g/00 g) and ash content (3.50-2.23 g/100 g) shows a decrease in comparison with the control. The mineral composition showed a significant increase in magnesium (30.07 to 46.77 mg g-1), sodium (18.51 to 34.34 mg g-1), potassium (23.51 to 40.88 mg g-1) and iron (0.00 to 0.08 mg g-1) when compared with the control. Of all the antinutrient content analysed, only phytate (58.66 to 5.08 g/100 g) and canavanine (0.79 to 0.40 mg g-1) has significant decrease in comparison with the control. Hence, it can be deduce from this work that the use of multiple starter culture in combined fermentation can be used to improve the nutritional content of Canavalia ensiformis L.
  D.J. Arotupin , T.B. Fabunmi and R.A.O. Gabriel-Ajobiewe
  The availability of microbial enzymes in addition to its low cost, large production, environmental protection, plasticity and chemical stability, makes them widely used for industrial processes. Agricultural and forestry waste which can serve as substrate in producing biologically important secondary metabolites such as cellular proteins, organic acids, prebiotic, enzymes are economically advantageous due to its low cost and availability. The study investigated and compared the potential of same micorganisms isolated from Cola acuminata husk and testa waste to produce hydrolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. The screened enzymes included α-amylase, β-amylase, cellulase, protease and lipases using appropriate procedures, with their activity measured in μmol min–1 mL–1. Microorganisms were isolated using standard microbiological techniques from Cola acuminata husk and testa subjected to liquid state fermentation for 10 days. Thirteen microorgainsms were isolated in all and examined for potentials to produce the named enzymes. The bacterial isolates included; Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus firmus, Micrococcus luteus and Lactobacillus fermentum. Trichoderma viridiae, Articulospora inflata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the fungal species isolated. The α-amylase, β-amylase and cellulase activity of the bacterial isolates ranged from 0.093±0.006a-0.383±0.015f μmol min–1 mL–1. Protease activity ranged from 1.723±0.147a-3.300±0.170g μmol min–1 mL–1 while the lipase from 1.000±0.160a-1.500±0.200f μmol min–1 mL–1. The activity of the fungal isolates on the other hand ranged from 0.013±0.005a-0.430±0.001e, 2.416±0.313a-10.137±0.083i and 1.000±0.050a-2.267±0.289f μmol min–1 mL–1 for the hydrolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes respectively. Protease and lipase had highest activity. Bacterial and fungal isolates from the testa showed higher enzymatic activity as compared to same isolates from the husk. Kolanut husk and testa can thus serve as an alternative substrate for microorganisms for the production of the screened enzymes.
  D.J. Arotupin , K.O. Awojobi and R.A.O. Gabriel-Ajobiewe
  The ethanolic, methanolic and water extracts of dried powdered leaves of Trichilia priedreana (Meliaceae) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on selected clinical pathogenic organisms. This was carried out using agar well diffusion method. The methanolic extract was found to be the most potent, followed by the ethanolic extract, while water extract was the least potent. Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis were highly susceptible to the methonolic and ethanolic extracts, while all the fungi, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Candida albicans were susceptible to the extracts with C. albicans being the most susceptible showing higher zones of inhibition. Extracts of T. priedreana were found to be more active than the standard commercial antibiotics. The MIC of the extracts varied from 1.563 to 12.5 mg mL-1 for the bacteria and 6.25 to 12.5 mg mL-1 for the fungi. The pH values of the extracts ranged from 4.40 to 6.64. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, phlobatannins, tannins and saponins. The yields from the plant leaves are very adequate possessing antimicrobial components comparable to commercial antibiotics, hence can be a good source of agents for chemotherapy.
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