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Articles by R.A. Hamzat
Total Records ( 4 ) for R.A. Hamzat
  I.A. Emiola , O.O. Ojebiyi , R.A. Hamzat , T.A. Rafiu , G. Ogunwuyi and A. Lawal
  One hundred and forty-four (144) day old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used to investigate the growth response as well as organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed graded levels of kola pod husk meal (KPHM). The birds were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments groups containing 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% KPHM. There were two replicates per treatments with 18 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. The birds placed on control diet utilized their feed more efficiently (P< 0.05) than other treatments. The broilers fed 10% and 20% KPHM were able to convert the diet more efficiently (P< 0.05) than the broilers on 30% KPHM. Treatment effects on weight gain, feed: gain ratio, dressed weight, length of small intestine, length of colon, length of caecum, weights of kidney and lung were significantly (P< 0.05) different. Growth rate decreased significantly (P< 0.05) with increasing level of KPHM in the diet. However, no significant (P>0.05) difference was observed in protein efficiency ratio, nitrogen retention, dry matter digestibility and crude fibre digestibility of the birds fed different diets. It could be concluded that KPHM inclusion in broiler diet up to 10% dietary level will adversely affect the performance of broilers.
  O. Olubamiwa , S.M. Ikyo , B.A. Adebowale , A.B. Omojola and R.A. Hamzat
  Efficient utilization of cocoa by-products has been identified as one of the means of ensuring the sustainability of the cocoa economy. A series of studies was started in 2000 with the aim of finding commercial usage for cocoa bean shell (CBS) in poultry (layer) diets. In the first trial, CBS was fed raw at graded levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) of maize replacement in layers mash. Suffice it to mention that maize constitutes > 50% of most layer feeds. The 10% diet was significantly better (P< 0.05) utilized than others. The second study assessed variously treated CBS at the 10% level. The boiled and urea-treated CBS based rations were better (P< 0.05) utilized than others. The third trial, which used 20% dietary maize replacement by CBS, established the boiled (30-minutes) CBS to be superior (P< 0.05) to the urea-treated. The present investigation assessed the optimal boiling time for CBS among durations of 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The 10-week experiment used one hundred and sixty-eight 32-weeks old laying hens. These were randomly allotted to the 7 treatments, which included 0% CBS diet, a commercial diet and an untreated CBS diet. The rest diets contained CBS boiled for 15, 20, 45 and 60 minutes. Maize was replaced at 20% level in the control mash in all the CBS based mashes. Among the CBS diets, only the 15-minutes boiled batch supported similar egg production and feed conversion as the Control diet. Feed intake and egg quality parameters were equal across treatments. Feed cost/kg egg was least on the 15-minutes boiled CBS diet.The results of this experiment indicated very strongly that the 15-minutes boiling duration is the best for optimal and profitable utilization of CBS in layers mash.
  F.E. Olaifa , R.A. Hamzat and O.O. Oyetoyan
  An acute toxicity test of ethanol extract of cocoa bean shell (CBS), a by-product of cocoa processing was conducted on 250 Sarotherodon gallilaeus juveniles for 96 h. There were 5 treatments and one control with each having 3 replicates. The treatments were prepared as 10,000, 7500, 4167, 2315, 1286 and 0 mg L-1 (control). The aim of the experiment was to study the toxic effects of Ethanol extract of CBS. While, the control experiment produced no mortalities and adverse histopathological responses, there were reactions to the presence of CBS extract in all the treatments which included restlessness and mortality. The lethal concentrations at which fifty percent of the test population died (LC 50) obtained using the logarithm method were 7943, 5012 and 6310 mg L-1 for replicates 1, 2 and 3, respectively while the probit method gave 5878, 4865, 6103 mg L-1 for replicates 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Histopathological examination of control fish showed no lesions on all tissues examined. However, marked changes were observed in the liver in form of degenerative hepatocytes, multifocal aggregation of haemosiderin laden macrophages; in the gills as shortening of gill filaments and in the brain as spongiosis of white cerebral matter of fish subjected to various concentrations of CBS extract. It was concluded that ethanol CBS extract possessed piscicidal properties on S. gallilaeus which could be useful in culling stunted and unwanted fish populations from ponds before stocking.
  O.J. Babayemi , R.A. Hamzat , M.A. Bamikole , N.F. Anurudu and O.O.Olomola
  Nutrient composition and qualitative analysis of saponin, tannin and steroids were determined. In vitro gas production of the tea leaf (TL) and STL were carried out in 24 h incubation. Metabolizable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were also predicted. NaOH (10 M) was introduced into the inoculums after 24 h, from which methane (CH4) production was measured. TL and STL had CP, CF, EE, ash and NDF 16.4 and 18.6%, 14 and 23%, 3.8 and 2.5%, 6.0 and 2.0%, 39.0 and 46.0% respectively. Qualitative evaluation of secondary metabolites showed the two stuffs contained condensed tannins and steroids. Saponin was found and enhanced methanogenesis in STL than TL. The cumulative gas produced at 24 h was 14 and 7 ml/200 mg DM for STL and TL respectively. The ME was similar but varied significantly (P < 0.05) in OMD, SCFA and CH4 productions. The result showed that spent tea leaf had potential to be used as protein and energy supplements for ruminants in the tropics.
 
 
 
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