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Articles by R. Von Kries
Total Records ( 3 ) for R. Von Kries
  A. Beyerlein , R. Von Kries , M. Hummel , N. Lack , B. Schiessl , G. Giani and A. Icks
  Aims  Reducing the risk of adverse outcomes in diabetic pregnancies to the level of risk in non-diabetic pregnancies is a major goal in diabetes care. So far there have not been any data to show whether progress is being made towards this goal.

Methods  We used population-based data on 2 292 053 deliveries between 1987 and 2007 in Bavaria, Germany, to assess temporal trends for stillbirths, early neonatal mortality, preterm delivery, macrosomia and malformations in consecutive 7 year intervals. We estimated prevalences and prevalence odds ratios for these outcomes. For stillbirth, as the most severe adverse outcome, we assessed the contributions of several predictors using multiple regression models.

Results  With the exception of early neonatal deaths, the risks for all outcomes were significantly increased in the offspring of mothers with pregestational diabetes in all three time periods (e.g. odds ratio for stillbirths in diabetic compared with non-diabetic mothers in 2001-2007, 1.89; 95% confidence interval 1.24, 2.87). However, the prevalence of stillbirths, premature delivery and macrosomia decreased over time in diabetic mothers (e.g. 1.71% for stillbirths in 1987-1993 and 0.66% in 2001-2007), as did the respective odds ratios. Maternal smoking, hypertension and substandard utilization of antenatal care were significantly associated with stillbirths in diabetic women.

Conclusions  Although the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes is still increased in diabetic mothers, considerable improvement has been achieved. We hypothesize that this improvement is possibly due to improved diabetes care.

  A. Beyerlein , I. Nehring , A. Schaffrath Rosario and R. von Kries
  Background  While the association of gestational diabetes mellitus and abnormal glucose tolerance is beyond doubt, its associations with other cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring are less clearly established. Some of these associations, in particular overweight in the offspring, might be confounded by maternal overweight.

Methods  Data on 12 542 children in the age of 3-17 years with full information about gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal BMI were available from the German nationwide KiGGS study. We calculated linear and logistic regression models for measurements of body composition, blood pressure, HbA1c and cholesterol values in the offspring with gestational diabetes mellitus as the explanatory variable, with and without adjustment for maternal BMI.

Results  The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in the dataset was 2.2%. Unadjusted regression analyses suggested weak positive effects of gestational diabetes mellitus on body composition measurements [e.g. a mean increase in BMI standard deviation scores (SDS) of 0.17 units (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.30)]. After adjustment for maternal BMI, the observed associations almost disappeared [e.g. BMI SDS: 0.07 (−0.06, 0.20)]. With respect to blood pressure and cholesterol, no potential effects of gestational diabetes mellitus were observed in both unadjusted and adjusted models.

Conclusion  Gestational diabetes mellitus does not appear to have a relevant effect on cardiovascular disease correlates such as blood pressure or cholesterol levels in children, and the potential effect of gestational diabetes mellitus on body composition seems to be widely explainable by maternal BMI.

  I. Nehring , A. Chmitorz , H. Reulen , R. von Kries and R. Ensenauer


Gestational diabetes mellitus is believed to be a risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity. We aimed to assess whether this association is either a reflection or independent of confounding by maternal BMI.


Data from 7355 mother-child dyads of the German Perinatal Prevention of Obesity cohort with full anthropometric information on mothers and children, gestational diabetes and confounding factors were obtained at school entry health examination. We calculated crude and adjusted logistic regression models for the association of gestational diabetes and childhood overweight/obesity and abdominal adiposity defined by age- and sex-specific percentiles for BMI and waist circumference.


Among all children (mean age 5.8 years), 8.1% were overweight, 2.6% were obese and 15.5% had abdominal adiposity. The prevalence of overweight (obesity) was 21% (8.2%) in children of mothers with gestational diabetes and 10.4% (2.4%) in children of healthy mothers. Analyses with adjustment for maternal BMI and other potential confounders yielded an odds ratio of 1.81 (95% CI 1.23-2.65) and 2.80 (95% CI 1.58-4.99) for the impact of gestational diabetes on childhood overweight and obesity, respectively. Similar results were obtained for the risk of childhood abdominal adiposity (odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.33) by maternal gestational diabetes.


The postulated increased risk of overweight and abdominal adiposity in offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes cannot be explained by maternal BMI alone and may be stronger for childhood obesity than for overweight.

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