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Articles by R. Thomas
Total Records ( 5 ) for R. Thomas
  A. A. B Badawy , C. J Morgan and R. Thomas

Aims: The aim of this study was to establish the contribution of low-alcohol beers to blood-ethanol concentration (BEC) and to test if ‘topping-up’ with these beverages can increase BEC above the 80 mg/dl UK legal limit. Methods: Healthy male and female volunteers received a dose of ethanol designed to give a BEC of just below 80 mg/dl, and then received one pint (600 ml) of a 1% v/v alcohol beer in the fasting state or after lunch, or of a zero-alcohol or a 0.5% v/v alcohol beer after fasting. BEC was determined enzymatically and data were subjected to ANOVA. Results: Topping-up with a pint of a 1% v/v alcohol beer increased BEC >80 mg/dl in fasting subjects, contributing an extra 12–17 mg/dl, which lasted longer in males (80 min) than in females (20 min). A 0.5% v/v alcohol beer increased BEC above 80 mg/dl only in males, which lasted for 60 min. After food intake, the 1% v/v alcohol beer increased BEC above 80 mg/dl transiently only in males. Conclusions: Low-alcohol beers make a significant contribution to blood-ethanol concentration and can increase it above the UK legal limit. Their use as a ‘top-up’ should be discouraged. Low-alcohol beers have a place as a substitute for normal-strength beverages as a strategy for decreasing alcohol consumption in general and in countries where low legal alcohol limits are in force or being contemplated.

  R. Thomas , A.S.R. Anjaneyulu , S.K. Mendiratta and N. Kondaiah
  The study was aimed at optimizing the pH hurdle during the process of development of shelf stable pork sausages using hurdle technology. The acidulants used were 0.5 N Lactic Acid (LA) and Glucono-Delta-Lactone (GDL). Different parameters evaluated were pH, emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein and fat contents, shear force, lovibond tintometer colour scores, texture profiles and sensory attributes. Reduction in emulsion pH by the addition of LA and/or GDL significantly (p<0.05) influenced the processing and quality parameters of pork sausages. Emulsion pH below 5.90 (i.e., pH of cooked product ~6.00) by the addition of 0.5 N LA affected different sensory attributes adversely. Similarly, incorporation of GDL at or above 0.3% adversely affected most of the quality and sensory attributes of pork sausages. It was observed that the pH of ~5.90 in emulsion achieved by a combination of LA and GDL resulted in better quality characteristics in pork sausages compared to the same pH level attained by either LA or GDL alone.
  A.S.R. Anjaneyulu , R. Thomas and N. Kondaiah
  Meat production and importance of processing of value added products are presented. Physico-chemical and functional properties of buffalo meat and their improvement by using polyphosphates and pre-blending of meat with salt and food additives are discussed. Processing of comminuted meat products such as patties, sausages, nuggets and rolls, low-fat sausages, enrobed cutlets, restructured meat blocks and rolls, cured and smoked meat chunks, snacks, shelf stable and traditional meat products and their packaging have been highlighted. Strategies for quality enhancement of meat and meat products are proposed in this review.
  R. Thomas , Y.P. Gadekar , G. Kandeepan , S.K. George and M. Kataria
  Buffalo lean meat was used to evaluate the effects of pH of the salt soluti1on (5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0), dilution volume (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 X sample weight), blending time (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 sec) and post mortem ageing period (0, 5, 10 and 15 days) on the yield of Salt Soluble Proteins (SSP). Maximum yield of SSP was obtained at pH 6.0. SSP yield increased with increase of dilution volume and blending time. Ageing buffalo lean meat for 5, 10 and 15 days postmortem reduced the yield of SSP. Thus, the extraction conditions and post mortem ageing period have significant effect on the yield of SSP from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) lean meat.
  B.D. Nkosi , A.T. Kanengoni and R. Thomas
  Total Mixed Rations (TMR) that contained 795 g kg-1 (as is basis) of Potato Hash (PH) were formulated and ensiled in 210 L drums (10 drums treatment-1) with or without lalsil fresh (heterofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant). After 3 months of ensiling, drums were opened and analysed for fermentation characteristics and nutritive value. This was followed by an 8 weeks growth study using forty crossbred pigs (Large white X landrace), twenty males and twenty females weighing 20±3 kg. Inoculating the TMR with lalsil fresh reduced (p<0.05) the pH, butyric acid, ammonia-N while increasing the concentration of lactic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid compared to the control. The growth performance of pigs was improved (p<0.05) with inoculation compared to control. However, the growth rates of pigs were <120 g day-1 which could be attributed to the lower dietary protein (<80 g kg-1 DM) and higher fibre contents. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of enzyme addition on the ensiling of potato hash and supplementation of energy and protein on feed intake and growth performance of pigs consuming the silage.
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