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Articles by R. S. Ware
Total Records ( 2 ) for R. S. Ware
  F. Xu , Y. Wang , R. S. Ware , L. Ah Tse , D. W. Dunstan , Y. Liang , Z. Wang , X. Hong and N. Owen
  Aims  To investigate the joint influence of physical activity and family history of diabetes on the subsequent risk of developing hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults.

Methods  A prospective community-based cohort study was conducted among adults aged 35 years and older during 2004-2007 in Nanjing, China. Four communities (three urban and one rural) were randomly selected from 11 urban districts and two rural counties. Hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes were defined using World Health Organization criteria based on fasting blood glucose concentration and physicians' diagnosis, respectively. Physical activity, parental diabetes history, and other important covariates were assessed at baseline and in the third-year follow-up survey.

Results  At study conclusion data were collected from 3031 participants (follow-up rate 81.3%). The 3-year cumulative incidence of hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes was 6.2% and 2.4%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, compared with those with positive family history and insufficient physical activity, the adjusted relative risk ratio (95% CI) of developing hyperglycaemia was 0.19 (0.02, 1.51) for participants with sufficient physical activity and a positive family history; 0.55 (0.31, 0.97) for participants with insufficient physical activity and a negative family history; and 0.36 (0.19, 0.70) for participants with sufficient physical activity but a negative family history. Participants who had a negative family history and insufficient physical activity were also less likely to develop Type 2 diabetes (RRR = 0.28; 0.14, 0.54), and participants with a negative family history and sufficient physical activity were the least likely to develop Type 2 diabetes (0.23; 0.10, 0.56).

Conclusions  Sufficient physical activity and negative family history of diabetes may jointly reduce the risk of developing hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults.

  A. W. Russell , K. A. Baxter , D. A. Askew , J. Tsai , R. S. Ware and C. L. Jackson


To evaluate patient outcomes for a novel integrated primary/specialist model of community care for complex Type 2 diabetes mellitus management compared with outcomes for usual care at a tertiary hospital for diabetes outpatients.


This was a prospective open controlled trial performed in a primary and tertiary care setting in Australia. A total of 330 patients with Type 2 diabetes aged >18 years were allocated to an intervention (n=185) or usual care group (n=145). The intervention arm was a community-based model of care led by a general practitioner with advanced skills and an endocrinologist partnership. Usual care was provided via the hospital diabetes outpatient department. The primary end point was HbA1c concentration at 12 months. Secondary end points included serum lipids and blood pressure.


The mean change in HbA1c concentration in the intervention group was −9 mmol/mol (−0.8%) at 12 months and in the usual care group it was −2 mmol/mol (−0.2%) (95% CI −5,1). The percentage of patients in the intervention group achieving the HbA1c target of ≤53 mmol/mol (7%) increased from 21 to 42% (P<0.001); for the usual care group there was a 1% increase to 39% of patients attaining this target (P=0.99). Patients in the intervention group experienced significant improvements in blood pressure and total cholesterol compared with those in the usual care group. The percentage of patients achieving clinical targets was greater in the intervention group for the combined target of HbA1c concentration, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol.


A community-based, integrated model of complex diabetes care, delivered by general practitioners with advanced skills, produced clinical and process benefits compared with a tertiary diabetes outpatient clinic.

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