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Articles by R. Rajendran
Total Records ( 10 ) for R. Rajendran
  S.M.K. Karthickeyan , S.N. Sivaselvam , R. Selvam , T.V. Raja , R. Rajendran and P. Thangaraju
  Umblachery cattle was assessed genetically using 25 microsatellite markers, as recommended by FAO. The number of alleles was ranging from 2 to 6 with a mean of 4.0±0.11. The mean number of effective alleles were 2.91±0.09. The allele sizes were ranging from 94 to 300 bp with the frequency distribution of 0.0111 to 0.9375. The estimated heterozygosity value was high 0.6139±0.02 and the PIC was 0.5625±0.03 and the loci screened were polymorphic and overall mean FIS value (-0.0487) suggested the excess of heterozygosity in the population.
  B. Elayarajah , R. Rajendran , C. Balakumar , B. Venkatrajah , Asa Sudhakar and P.K. Janiga
  Microbial damage of fabrics and microbial-contaminated fabrics are known to be the major source of nosocomial cross-infections in hospitals. The hospital fabrics possess susceptible surface properties to harbour diverse group of bacteria. The main aim of this study is to treat the fabric materials using two groups of antibacterial drug combinations based on their synergistic behaviour. Hence for the first time synergistic ofloxacin and ornidazole drugs were covalently bound to the textile materials using reactive dye method. Using the standard AATCC Test Method-100 the antibacterial activity and durability of drug treated textile materials was evaluated before and after wash. Drug treated textile materials (before wash) showed maximum percentage of reduction with a reduction percentage of 90% for E. coli (nylon) and 92.85% for S. aureus (polyester). After 5th wash, the treated textile materials showed maximum reduction percentage of 63.4% for E. coli (nylon) and 64.1% for S. aureus (nylon). The development of antibacterial textile finish in the study could have the possibility to eliminate the drug resistance properties of hospital based nosocomial pathogens.
  E. Syamili , B. Elayarajah , Kulanthaivelu , R. Rajendran , B. Venkatrajah and P. Ajith Kumar
  Majority of the antimicrobial compounds used for treating textiles are synthetic based and are not considered to be environmental friendly. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to use the extracts from leaves of edible Green tea showing antibacterial properties to treat textile materials. The extracts (GTE) were made interacted with copper (GTC) in the copper vessel for enhancing the antibacterial properties. The extracts were treated onto cotton fabrics using a standard Pad-dry-cure method with and without the cross-linker (Citric acid). Using the standard Agar diffusion test the antibacterial activity and durability of GTE and GTC treated cotton was evaluated before and after wash. After 10 washes, the directly applied GTE and GTC extracts (without cross-linker) do not show much activity (<25% bacterial reduction) when compared to that of GTC treated cotton with citric acid (>50% bacterial reduction). Antibacterial textile finish using the eco-friendly leaf extracts of Green tea could have the possibility to eliminate the properties of bacteria gaining resistance against the oral prophylactic antibiotic drugs.
  B. Venkatrajah , V. Vanitha Malathy , B. Elayarajah , Mohan , R. Rajendran and Ram Rammohan
  Wound healing is a complicated process with haemostasis, neovascularisation and re-epithelisation. To accelerate the process, moisture, sterile condition without microbial intervention and plant metabolites to influence the wound healing related metabolic functions are needed. The 40s Ne yarn was used to prepare the wound dressing cotton gauze. The physical properties such as areal density, air permeability and stiffness of gauze were analysed. Mixed polymer formulations like chitosan-sodium alginate, sodium alginate-calcium alginate and chitosan-sodium alginate-calcium alginate were prepared and coated separately on cotton gauze surface using pad-dry-cure method. The herbal extract of Bletilla striata was immobilized on the polymer coated fabrics to increase the rate of wound healing. The qualitative and quantitative antibacterial assays of coated cotton gauze was evaluated against the bacteria S. aureus ATCC 6538 and E. coli ATCC 10229 using the standard EN ISO 20654:2004 and AATCC testing methods. Animal model was used to reveal the wound closure effect of the prepared specimens. A novel design of various polymer coated cotton gauze fabric for wound healing with antimicrobial activity was developed using 40s Ne yarn. The cotton gauze with all the three polymers and herbal extract showed rapid wound healing effect due to excellent antibacterial activity by chitosan, moisture retaining by alginate and cell proliferation and tissue regeneration effect from B. striata extract in albino rat animal models.
  R. Rajendran , K. Prem Sai , B. Chandrasekar , A. Gokhale and S. Basu
  Closed cell aluminium foam fitted AISI 304L stainless steel tube was investigated for its impact energy absorption characteristics. Quasi-static load–deflection tests were employed to establish the foam–tube interaction factor. Drop experiments were carried out using a free flight drop tower on aluminium foam fitted stainless steel tube to obtain the acceleration–time history of the hammer. Estimated deflections compared well with the experimental values. Adequate force reduction factor indicated that the foam–tube configuration is a potential energy absorber candidate for the nuclear transportation cask.
  Elayarajah , R. Rajendran , Venkatrajah , Sweda Sreekumar , Asa Sudhakar , Janiga and Soumya Sreekumar
  Biomaterial-centred bacterial infections present common and challenging complications with medical implants like ureteral stent which provide substratum for the biofilm formation. Hence the purpose of this study is to make antibacterial stent surface with biodegradable polymer (tocopherol acetate) and anti-infective agents (norfloxacin and metronidazole) using a modified dip-coating procedure. This is done by impregnating the stent pieces in the anti-infective solution (a mixture of norfloxacin-metronidazole and polymer) for uniform surface coating (drug-carrier-coated stents). After coating, agar diffusion test was performed as qualitative test to find out the sensitivity of coated stents against the clinical isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Quantitative test was measured by calculating the numbers of adhered bacteria on coated and uncoated stents by incubating the stent pieces in artificial urine. Difference in the number of viable bacteria adhered on the surface of coated and uncoated stents were statistically calculated using chi square test with p<0.05 considered significant. The stent colonising ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli in a controlled environment chamber was determined using two-challenge dose of the isolates by in vitro challenge test. In qualitative test, the zone of inhibition around the coated stents showed sensitivity against the clinical isolates. In quantitative test, the number of adhered bacteria on the surface of coated stents was reduced to a significant level (p<0.05). The polymer, tocopherol acetate is highly biodegradable in nature. Due to its degrading ability in body tissues, it releases the anti-infective drugs at a constant and sustained rate.
  R. Rajendran , S. Karthik Sundaram , R. Radhai and P. Rajapriya
  The conventional scouring process involving the harsh environment is slowly being replaced with environment friendly approach using enzymes. These enzymes remove the non cellulosic impurities present in the fabric. Such a process would enhance the absorbency of the fabric without appreciable strength loss and also would help in the proper dyeing and finishing of the fabric. In the present work pectinase enzyme was isolated from Fusarium sp. and was optimized under different cultural conditions. The partially purified pectinase enzyme was used in the scouring of cotton fabric. The efficiency of the bioscoured cotton fabric was compared with that of the conventionally scoured fabric. It was found that the water absorbing character of the bioscoured fabric was found to be considerably higher than that of the conventionally scoured fabric. Also, the tensile strength of the cotton fabric was found to be higher for the sample treated using pectinase enzyme than the sample treated conventionally. The results of FTIR confer that the pectin and wax impurities were removed from the cotton surface in both the conventionally scoured and bioscoured fabrics.
  R. Rajendran , S. Karthik Sundaram , P. Prabhavathi , B.V. Sridevi and V. Gopi
  About 4 different predominant adapted fungal strains (screened from effluent sample) Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp. and Mucor sp. and 4 predominant non-adapted strains (screened from soil, water and fungal fruiting bodies) Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp. and Rhizopus sp., with potential dye decolorization ability on Reactive black 5, Amido black-10B, Red 5B, Reactive red 120 and Anthraquinone violet R were isolated. These organisms were used to develop a consortium which was used in analyzing the bioremediation efficiency on textile effluents containing a mixture of azo dyes. There was about 67% of reduction in color along with 34% of COD reduction by non-adapted fungal consortium while effective bioremediation efficiency was observed in adapted fungal consortium (Color 75% and COD 50%). The regression co-efficient for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were found to be higher for adapted fungal consortium (R2 = 0.97 and R2 = 0.92) than the non-adapted consortium (R2 = 0.97 and R2 = 0.85) proving that both monolayer and multilayer adsorption of dyes were observed on treating the samples with the adapted fungal consortium. On analyzing the results observed through chi-square test, the calculated value (28.712) was higher than the tabulated value (9.49) at a 4 degree freedom hence the hypothesis was rejected. So, there was an association between adapted fungal consortium and non-adapted fungal consortium and hence the adapted fungal consortium could be considered potentially useful for the bioremediation of textile effluent.
  B. Venkatrajah , V. Vanitha Malathy , B. Elayarajah , R. Rajendran and Ram Rammohan
  Wound healing is a long and complex process. To improve wound healing, the wound dressing cotton gauze can be functionalized by imparting moisture holding and antibacterial ability. Moisture is an important factor for wound healing and the absence of microbial intervention can accelerate wound healing process. Direct alkylation method was used to synthesis carboxymethylated chitosan with water solubility, biocompatibility and antibacterial activity. Calcium alginate was used along with modified chitosan as moisture gaining polymeric agent. Pad-dry-cure method was employed to coat both the polymers on cotton gauze surface, which was weaved using 40s Ne cotton yarn. After coating, the cotton was analysed for its polymer add-on percentage, antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Escherichia coli ATCC 10229. The persistence analysis of antibacterial activity ensures the polymer withstanding ability on cotton gauze surface. SEM detection of polymers with cotton threads confirms their presence. Wound healing action of the polymer coated cotton gauze was determined using albino rats as animal model.
  Sweda Sreekumar , B. Elayarajah , R. Rajendran , B. Venkatrajah , Soumya Sreekumar and Selin Jacob
  Coronary artery disease usually requires angioplasty-involving stents that help in keeping the artery open for proper blood flow. Such stents may present surfaces for colonization of biofilm forming bacteria thereby causing stent-associated infections. The purpose of this study was to provide anti-infective Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene (PTFE) stents for the prevention of biofilm formation. Anti-infective mixture of synergistic drugs with biodegradable carrier, DL-lactic Acid (DLLA) was used to coat PTFE stents by means of dip-coating procedure. FTIR analysis of PTFE stent was used to determine the presence of bound anti-infective drugs. Antibacterial activity of anti-infective PTFE stents was determined qualitatively and quantitatively. In vitro challenge test was monitored to determine the persistence of drugs on anti-infective PTFE stent surface. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed two major peaks at 3101.64 and 1141.94 nm for the O-H stretching and .C=O stretching of COOH. Antibacterial activity was analysed by qualitative (Agar diffusion test) and quantitative (Bacterial adherence test) methods. The former showed largest inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29 mm) and the latter confirmed that the number of adhered bacteria in drug-carrier coated stents (p<0.05) were less than the number of adhered bacteria in carrier-coated stents (p>0.05). In vitro challenge test clearly demonstrated that bacterial growth failed to develop even after three consecutive challenge doses. These drug-eluting stents could be of great interest for coronary stenting to prevent stent-associated infections if these results are confirmed in vivo.
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