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Articles by R. Hashim
Total Records ( 8 ) for R. Hashim
  Nine isoenergetic (18.5 kJ g−1) diets were formulated in a 3 × 3 factorial design to contain three protein levels (350, 400 and 450 g kg−1) for each of three lipid levels (65, 90 and 115 g kg−1), respectively, and fed twice daily for 8 weeks to fish of mean initial weight 3.34 ± 0.02 g reared in a re-circulatory water system. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) were maintained within the range 28–30 °C, 5.6–6.8 and 4.82–6.65 mg L−1 respectively throughout. Results show that fish survival was better in the groups fed 65 g kg−1 lipid while growth performance (% weight gain, WG; specific growth rate, SGR) and nutrient utilization (feed conversion ratio, FCR; protein efficiency ratio, PER; protein intake, PI) in the 65/450 and 90/450 g kg−1 treatments were similar and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in fish fed the other lipid/protein ratio combinations. The body indices monitored (Hepatosomatic index, HSI and viscerosomatic index, VSI) were similar among the treatments whereas intestinal lipase activity was not significantly (P < 0.05) affected by increase in dietary lipid and protein levels. Carcass composition showed that dietary protein level affected body protein content positively in the 65 and 90 g kg−1 lipid treatments, but dietary lipid level did not affect body lipid content. A lipid/protein ratio of 65/450 g kg−1 is considered adequate for good growth performance and survival of Channa striatus fry.
  O. Sulaiman , R. Hashim , R.N. Kumar , P. Tamyez , R.J. Murphy and Z. Ali
  The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of incorporation of flame retardants chemical on some of the properties of phenol formaldehyde medium density fiberboard. Flame retardant chemicals that were used include sodium aluminate, zinc borate and aluminum trihydrate. Four concentrations levels, 10, 15, 20 and 30% of the flame retardants and 15% phenol formaldehyde resin based on oven dry weight were used to manufacture the experimental panels. The effect on physical and mechanical properties were then evaluated. Flame retardant and thermal properties of the panels were also investigated using a cabinet test method, thermogravimetry analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Thickness swell decreased as the amount of the flame retardants increased while the mechanical properties decreased as the amount of flame retardants increased except for the modulus of rupture. The mechanical properties reduced considerably after cyclic tests. The boards incorporated with aluminum trihydrate gave an overall best performance in both physical and mechanical properties followed by sodium aluminate and zinc borate. The study indicated flame retardant MDF incorporated with sodium aluminate as the most effective flame retardant.
  R. Hashim and S. Islam
  Aim of this study is to determine physical and mechanical properties of tropical peatland in West Malaysia. To know the proper methods of ground improvement and to know the scale of improvement works, a proper soil investigation requires. A study on peatland in Peninsular, Malaysia was conducted to determine stratigraphy of peat layer, bearing capacity, physical properties, unconfined compressive strength and consolidation properties. Some conventional laboratory and field experiments were done to determine its physical and mechanical properties and to find the soil profile. From experiments it was observed that the depth of the peat was moderate and it had high water, organic and fibre content. The soil was acidic and it had low bearing capacity and had low unconfined compressive strength. Its compressibility was very high and it had high settlement value. These properties should be considered when ground improvement works are undertaken for this type of problematic soil in construction industry.
  L.S. Wong , R. Hashim and F.H. Ali
  The aim of this study was to analyze the unconfined compressive strength and initial permeability of peat soil stabilized by a mixture of Ordinary Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag and siliceous sand. An understanding of the stabilized soil properties is of great importance for the design of deep stabilization in peat land for highway construction. Significant evidence on the positive effects of the admixture at stabilizing peat soil was discovered from laboratory testing investigation of the study. Results from the investigation indicated that addition of the admixture was able to increase unconfined compressive strength and reduce initial permeability of the stabilized soil as compared to those of untreated peat.
  Md. Shahidul Islam and R. Hashim
  The main objective of this study is to stabilize peat soil by deep mixing method using cement, sand, bentonite and calcium chloride as binder and to determine the effect on bearing capacity using proving ring hand operated cone penetrometer. Eight soil-binder columns have been constructed by mixing auger and prebored and premixing method using two different combination of binder. Bearing capacity of the columns has been evaluated by hand operated cone penetrometer after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of curing time. From the test results it was observed that bearing capacity of peat column increased considerably after stabilization.
  M.F.T. Baharuddin , R. Hashim and S. Taib
  A geophysical method was used in studying the effect of environmental impact and shoreline physical changes on coastal-area salinity of both soil and groundwater at the Sungai Besar area in Malaysia. The environmental impact was a previous flooding of the shore by seawater and the consequent severe coastal erosion. 2-D geo-electrical resistivity technique was used in evaluating the extent of salinity to soil and to groundwater. Resistivity was measured through an ABEM SAS 1000 C Terrameter. 2-D electrical-imaging resistivity data of subsurface profile for each survey line were calculated through inverse modelling, aided by borehole data, which showed the lithology; Quaternary alluvium sediments more than 80 m deep, composed of alternating layers of sand, silt and clay. From the two resistivity-image profiles obtained, spots of saline plume were found scattered on top of the impermeable-layer marine clay, with less than 0.2 ohm m, resistivity. Resistivity-image profile L1 showed saline plume spots to have penetrated the first confined aquifer found at depths of 18.00-34.50 m below ground surface, while resistivity-image profile L2 did not show the presence of any such plume. The resistivity-image profiles also revealed that the second confined aquifer of each profile has not been affected by the saltwater contamination. In terms of salinity distance, the L1 image profile dominated the full 400 m distance, whereas the L2 profile shows the salinity condition to be about 250 m from shoreline. The results therefore suggest that the salinity of the groundwater aquifer is due probably to ancient seawater-flooding that has long percolated through the sediments, rather than to direct seawater-intrusion.
  L.S. Wong , R. Hashim and F.H. Ali
  This study reviews the results of several experimental and field investigations on the behavior of peat in hydraulic conductivity and compressibility. A study on the mechanical properties of peat is important in order to gather sufficient information on the response of the soil to preloading in terms of the soil permeability and deformation. Preloading technique is normally employed as a method to improve peat ground so that the improved ground can be used as a soil foundation to support road embankment. Findings on the initial hydraulic conductivity of peat revealed that the initial coefficient of vertical permeability (kv0) of the soil ranged from 10-5 to 10-8 m sec-1 with the value was found to be lower in amorphous peat as compared to that of fibrous peat. Such findings indicated that the initial hydraulic conductivity of peat is influenced by the soil degree of decomposition. The higher is the soil degree of decomposition, the lower is its initial rate of hydraulic conductivity. Results from oedometer tests on Portage peat showed that while the soil coefficient of secondary compression (cα1) ranged from 0.17 to 0.18, its coefficient of tertiary compression (cα2) varied from 0.6 to 0.18. At high consolidation pressure, the soil cα1 approached its cα2 indicating the merging of secondary and tertiary compression components. It can be concluded that the behavior of peat is different from that of inorganic soil in that it exhibited high to moderate initial hydraulic conductivity, rapid primary consolidation and large secondary compression.
  S. Deboucha and R. Hashim
  This research describes a study on peat soil stabilisation to improve its physical and engineering properties. It investigates the effect of additives (binder amount 5, 10 and 15% (85% cement, 15% bentonite) and range of sand 5 to 25% on the index properties as well as, durability, plasticity and swelling of tropical peat soils. The amount of additives added to the peat soil sample was investigated in terms of the percentage of the dry soil mass. The results showed that of the additive admixtures altered the engineering properties of tropical peat soils. The soil plastic limit, liquid limit and plastic index were found to decrease with increase of the additive content. Swelling of stabilized peat soils was found decrease with increase additives, however, the curing time. The effect of durability increased resistance of strength for lower content of addition to higher content additives.
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