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Articles by R. Erbel
Total Records ( 2 ) for R. Erbel
  A. Icks , J. Kruse , N. Dragano , M. Broecker-Preuss , U. Slomiany , K. Mann , K. H. Jockel , R. Erbel , G. Giani and S. Moebus
  Aims  To estimate the association between depressive symptoms and Type 2 diabetes, as well as previously undetected diabetes, in a large population-based sample in Germany and to determine associated variables.

Methods  We used baseline data on 4595 participants (age 45-75 years, 50.2% women) from the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, a population-based, prospective cohort study which started in 2000. Diabetes mellitus was assessed by self report (physician diagnosis or medication), undiagnosed diabetes based on blood glucose levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale short form (cut-off ≥ 15 points). We fitted multiple logistic regression models.

Results  The prevalence of diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes was 9.3% (95% confidence interval 8.2-11.6) and 7.6% (6.6-8.8) in men and 6.0% (5.1-7.1) and 3.2% (2.5-4.0) in women, respectively. Compared with non-diabetic women, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was not significantly different in diabetic women (age-adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval 1.48; 0.98-2.24) and women with undiagnosed diabetes (0.67; 0.33-1.36). In men, the prevalence of depressive symptoms tended to be lower in diabetic than in non-diabetic subjects (0.62; 0.35-1.09), but the depressive symptoms were significantly less frequent in men with undiagnosed diabetes (0.30; 0.13-0.70). The pattern remained after further adjustment. Significant associations with depressive symptoms were found for co-morbidities and living without a partner in both women and in men, and for body mass index and activity level in women only.

Conclusions  After adjustment for relevant covariates, the association between depressive symptoms and Type 2 diabetes was heterogenous in our population-based study. In subjects with undiagnosed diabetes, however, depressive symptoms were less frequent in men. Co-morbidities and psychosocial conditions are strongly associated with depressive symptoms.

  A. Icks , B. Albers , B. Haastert , S. Pechlivanis , B. Bokhof , U. Slomiany , R. Erbel , K.-H. Jockel , J. Kruse , B. Nowotny , C. Herder , G. Giani and S. Moebus
  Aims  Cross-sectional studies have consistently reported evidence for an association between diabetes and depressive disorders. However, only limited prospective studies have examined this association, reporting conflicting results. In a population-based cohort study, we compared cumulative incidences of diabetes between participants with and without high depressive symptoms.

Method  We analysed the 5-year follow-up data from the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall study of 3547 participants without diabetes at baseline [mean age 58.8 (sd 7.6) years, 47.5% male]. Depressive symptoms were defined using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut point ≥ 17). Diabetes (diagnosed or previously undetected) was identified by self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, medication and high blood glucose levels. We estimated 5-year cumulative incidences with 95% confidence intervals and fitted multiple logistic regression models to calculate the odds ratios, adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, smoking, living with or without partner, and educational level.

Results  The cumulative incidence of diabetes was 9.2% (95% CI 6.3-12.8) in participants with high depressive symptoms at baseline and 9.0% (95% CI 8.0-10.0) in participants without these symptoms. The age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio of diabetes in participants with depressive symptoms compared with those without was 1.13 [95% CI 0.77-1.68; fully adjusted 1.11 (95% CI 0.74-1.65)]. These results did not substantially change in several additional sensitivity analyses.

Conclusion  Our study did not show a significantly increased risk of developing diabetes in individuals with high depressive symptoms compared with those without high depressive symptoms during a 5-year follow-up period.

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