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Articles by R. Cote
Total Records ( 6 ) for R. Cote
  C.C. Galbrand , A.M. Snow , A.E. Ghaly and R. Cote
  A surface flow constructed wetland, designed to curve in a kidney shape in order to increase the length to width ratio to 5:1 was used to treat runoff from an industrial park. A natural wetland system located approximately 200 m downstream of the constructed wetland was selected to act as the vegetative community model for the constructed wetland. The selected model was a riparian, open water marsh dominated by emergent macrophytes. Baseline plant species surveying was conducted. In total, 21 emergent wetland plant species, 40 upland vascular plant species, 17 upland shrub species and 13 upland tree species were identified in the model site. The species from the model site were screened for suitability in the constructed wetland based on the following criteria: (a) phytoremediation potential (especially metal uptake), (b) sedimentation and erosion control, (c) habitat function, (d) public deterrent potential and (e) rate of plant establishment, tolerances and maintenance requirements. Transplantation was chosen as the main vegetation establishment methodology in the constructed wetland. The species woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) and soft rush (Juncus effusus) were chosen to dominate the interior berms and littoral edges of the constructed wetland cells. The buffer areas were dominated by meadowsweet (Spiraea alba var. latifolia) and the open water areas were dominated by cowlily (Nuphar variegate) and pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata) species. A diverse, self-sustaining vegetative community was successfully established in the constructed wetland. The transplant success was gauged by mortality census in the spring of 2003. Over all, 138 dead transplants were observed, many of which had died as a direct result of washout. These computes to an overall site establish success rate of about 87.3%. The species, which suffered the highest mortality rates, were the pickerelweed, with approximately 50 dead plants, the meadowsweet with 32 observed dead plants and woolgrass with 27 dead plants.
  A. Snow , A. E. Ghaly , R. Cote and A.M. Snow
  A surface flow wetland was constructed in the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, to treat stormwater runoff from the surrounding watersheds which are comprised primarily of commercial properties and two former landfills. The objectives of this study were: (a) to compare the uptake of iron by red maple, white birch and red spruce trees growing under flooded soil conditions in the constructed wetland and well drained soil conditions in a nearby reference site, (b) to evaluate the seasonal variability of iron in these trees and (c) to determine the distribution of iron in different compartments of these trees (leaves, twigs, branches, trunk wood, trunk bark and roots). The average iron concentrations in the aboveground compartments of red maple, white birch and red spruce trees were within the range of iron concentrations reported in the literature for these trees. Red maple, white birch and red spruce trees in the constructed wetland had significantly greater iron concentrations in their roots than the same species in the reference site. The average iron concentrations in the leaves of red maple trees in the constructed wetland and the reference site displayed an increasing trend towards the end of the growing season while the average iron concentrations in the twigs of red maple and white birch trees in the constructed wetland and the reference site displayed maximum concentrations at the beginning of the growing season. Red maple, white birch and red spruce trees in the constructed wetland retained a major portion of their overall iron concentration in their root systems.
  A.E. Ghaly , M.A. Kamal and R. Cote
  The ability of limestone and limestone/sandstone filters to remove dissolved iron and manganese from landfill leachate under field conditions were investigated. The results showed that the precipitation of iron and manganese were affected by temperature and time. Most of iron was removed from solution within the first 10 min at 20oC while the removal of iron from solution took much longer time (50 min) at 5oC. Larger percentage (69%) of manganese was removed from solution within the first 20 min at 20oC compared to that (42%) removed at 5oC. Removal of manganese from solution was affected by the presence of iron while presence of manganese did not affect iron removal from solution. The lower removal efficiencies of manganese showed the slow kinetic of manganese oxidation. The iron and manganese removal rate constants of the limestone filters were higher than those of the limestone/sandstone filters. The pH of the water samples did not exceed 7.7. Therefore, the wetland ecosystem should be able to adjust to water having a slight alkalinity without suffering adverse effects.
  A. E. Ghaly , M. A. Kamal , N. S. Mahmoud and R. Cote
  The suitability of a passive technology, consisting of filters composed of a mixture of limestone and sandstone rocks, for the treatment of landfill leachates containing 6.6 mg L-1 iron and 1.8 mg L-1 manganese were investigated. The limestone and the limestone/sandstone filters successfully removed iron from the prepared solutions. The filters removed on average a minimum of 97.60% of the iron from solution on a daily basis. The removal of manganese from solution was not as efficient as iron removal. The filters removed between 22.22% and 100% of the manganese from solution. Neither the filter type nor the solution type affected the iron and manganese removal efficiencies. Although iron precipitate was evident during the 7 day experimental period, armoring did not affect the removal efficiency of the elements. The pH of the water samples did not exceed 7.7. Therefore, the wetland ecosystem should be able to adjust to water having a slightly higher pH without suffering adverse effects.
  C. Galbrand , I. G. Lemieux , A. E. Ghaly , R. Cote and M. Verma
  A surface flow constructed wetland was used for the treatment of landfill leachate and industrial park runoff. The wetland consisted of seven cells and was designed as a kidney shape to facilitate high retention time. The water quality was assessed for iron, manganese, phosphorus (orthophosphate), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and TKN), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The water quality parameters were measured at inlet, cell 1 (unvegetated area), cell 2, cell 3 and outlet to determine progress in treatment efficiency as water flow through the wetland. The reductions in iron, manganese, ammonia and TKN were 24.2 %, 6.7 %, 37 % and 5.9 %, respectively. The concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and DO were within the Canadian guidelines for the protection of aquatic animals. Increases in COD, TSS and TDS concentrations of 11.8 %, 5.2 % and 7.5 %, were observed at outlet mainly due to immature vegetation and underdeveloped biodiversity.
  A. Snow , A. E. Ghaly and R. Cote
  A surface flow wetland was constructed in the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, to treat stormwater runoff from the surrounding watersheds which are comprised primarily of commercial properties and two former landfills. The aim was to protect a freshwater ecosystem that consists of a 4.6 km long brook and two lakes. The ability of the constructed wetland to retain iron and manganese from the influent water was investigated and the change in pH of the water as it flowed through the cells was assessed. In 2004, the total iron removal efficiency of the constructed wetland ranged from a low of 47.13 % to a high of 84.74 % and in 2006 ranged from a low of 35.56 % to a high of 78.49 % depending on rain events. The outlet total iron concentrations in 2006 were not significantly different from those reported for 2004. In 2004, the total manganese removal efficiency of the constructed wetland ranged from a low of 25.75 % to a high of 51.61 % and in 2006 ranged from a low of 0.0 % to a high of 33.33 % depending on rain events. The inlet and the outlet total manganese concentrations in the constructed wetland from August to October 2006 were significantly higher than the inlet and the outlet total manganese concentrations reported for August to October 2004 because water levels in the constructed wetland were very low and the average pH of the outlet water was lower in 2006. In 2004 and 2006, the pH of the water in the constructed wetland had average inlet values of 6.70 and 6.26 and average outlet values of 7.28 and 6.70, respectively.
 
 
 
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