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Articles by R. Ara
Total Records ( 12 ) for R. Ara
  A. Arshad , R. Ara , S.M.N. Amin and A.G. Mazlan
  Stomach content of fish larvae of family Terapontidae were studied in samples acquired from Merambong Shoal, south western part of Johor, Malaysia from December 2007 to September 2008. Larvae were collected by subsurface towing of a Bongo net. Stomachs were removed from a total of 117 Terapontidae specimens during the study period and the stomach contents were fully examined. Analyses of prey in the stomach showed 24 important food items belonging to six major groups viz., phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae, plant-like matter, debris and unidentified matters. The predominant food items found in the stomach were phytoplankton (74.25%). This was followed by plant matters (8.02%), algae (6.69%), zooplankton (4.95%), debris (3/65%) and unidentified matters (2.45%). Among the food items, phytoplankton was the first rank by simple resultant index (74.25%). Therefore, it could be concluded that the fish larvae of family Terapontidae are mainly herbivorous.
  R. Ara , S.M.N. Amin , A.G. Mazlan and A. Arshad
  Morphometric data of six dominant families of fish larvae were examined to observe the degree of similarity among the six families. The experiment was conducted in the seagrass-mangrove ecosystems of Gelang Patah, Johor Strait, Peninsular Malaysia. Samples of fish larvae were collected by using bongo net through 30 min subsurface tow. The six dominant families (Terapontidae, Gobiidae, Sillaginidae, Nemipteridae, Blenniidae and Leiognathidae) were selected for the morphometric analysis using one-way ANOVA by SPSS and PRIMER 5 software for cluster analysis. All the morphometric characters, total length, standard length, body depth, snout length, head length, eye diameter and pre anal length of the six dominant families of the order Perciformes were found to be significantly different (p<0.05). The study is formed a basis for further extensive research to be carried out on larval fishes in Malaysian waters.
  Aziz Arshad , S.M.N. Amin , Wan Nurul Izzah , D. Aziz and R. Ara
  Planktonic shrimp Acetes japonicus is found in the west of Peninsular Malaysia around the year. The study was conducted to observe the morphometric variation among the population of Acetes japonicus from four different sites along the coastal waters of Malacca, Penang and Perlis. Morphometric data of this species was analyzed using ANOVA and PRIMER software to investigate the degree of similarity among the populations of A. japonicus collected from four different sites (Malacca, Penang and two sides in Perlis) in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The ANOVA showed that the mean difference of total length, standard length, carapace length and abdomen length amongst the four populations were highly significant (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed amongst the telson length of four populations (p>0.05). Dendrogram based on both sexes of morphometric characters showed three clusters amongst the populations. Sg. Berembang and Pantai Bersih populations were clustered in one group, Sg. Baharu population was in another group and both groups were well separated from the Klebang Besar population. The highest morphometric resemblance is observed between Sg. Berembang and Pantai Bersih populations which fall under the same group with a similarity of 99.67%. Analysis of variance showed that shrimp samples from the four sites differed significantly (p<0.05) based on morphometric characters.
  R. Ara , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and A.G. Mazlan
  Fish larval diversity is very important for management of the fisheries resources. Fish larval density, family richness, Shannon Wiener index and evenness were determined by analyzing samples collected from the seagrass-mangrove ecosystem of Gelang Patah, Johor Strait, Peninsular Malaysia between October 2007 and September 2008. Five stations were selected namely upper estuary (S1), middle estuary (S2), lower estuary (S3), seagrass beds (S4) and outside seagrass beds (S5). In total, 24 fish larval families were identified from the investigated area. Among them, 14 occurred in upper estuary, 17 in middle estuary, 16 in lower estuary, 20 in seagrass beds and 16 in outside seagrass beds. Overall five (Clupeidae, Blenniidae, Terapontidae, Gobiidae and Sillaginidae) were the most dominant in study areas. Shannon-Wiener index varied significantly within monsoon and intermonsoon seasons peaking in the months October-January and May-August. The highest density of larval fishes was recorded at seagrass station (S4) and the spatial variations in larval density were significant (p<0.05) between seagrass and other four sampling sides. None of the diversity indices showed significant among-stations except only family richness was significantly (p<0.05) higher in seagrass beds than upper estuary.
  M. Aminur Rahman , A. Arshad , K. Marimuthu , R. Ara and S.M.N. Amin
  Inter-specific hybrids have been produced to increase growth rate, improve productivity through hybrid vigor, transfer desirable traits, reduce unwanted reproduction through production of sterile fish, combine other valuable traits such as good flesh quality, disease resistance and increase environmental tolerances, better food conversion, take advantages of sexual dimorphism and increase harvesting rate in culture systems. Hybrids play a significant role for increase in aquaculture production of several species of freshwater and marine fishes; for example, hybrid catfish in Thailand, hybrid stripped bass in the USA, hybrid tilapia in Israel and hybrid characids in Venezuela. Despite its’ wide-spread use in aquaculture, there have been an impression that hybrids do not hold much attraction for aquaculturist. With the expansion of aquaculture sector and the increased number of species being bred and farmed, there are hybrids that now account for a substantial proportion of national aquaculture production and other hybrids may be emerging through further development. As the domestication of fish species increases, the possibilities to increase production through appropriate hybridization techniques is ongoing with a view to produce new hybrid fishes, especially in culture systems where sterile fish may be preferred because of the concern that fish may escape into the open freshwater, marine and coastal environment. Chromosome-set manipulation (polyploidization) has been combined with hybridization to increase the viability and to improve developmental stability of hybrid fishes. Intentional or accidental hybridization can lead to unexpected and undesirable results in hybrid progeny, such as reduced viability and growth performances, loss of color pattern and flesh quality and also raises risks to maintenance of genetic integrity of species if the hybrids escape to the natural habitat and undergo backcrosses with the parental species. The success of inter-specific hybridization can be variable and depend on the genetic structure, crossing patterns, gamete compatibility and gene flow patterns of the parental species. Appropriate knowledge on the genetic constitution of the broodstock, proper broodstock management and monitoring of the viability and fertility of the progeny of brood fishes is thus very crucial before initiating hybridization experiments. In addition, some non-generic factors such as weather conditions, culture systems, seasons and stresses associated with selecting, collecting, handling, breeding and rearing of broodstock and progeny may greatly influence hybridization success in a wide variety of freshwater and marine fin fishes.
  S. Shaaban , M. Alsulami , S.A. Arbab , R. Ara , A. Shankar , A. Iskander , K. Angara , M. Jain , H. Bagher-Ebadian , B.R. Achyut and A.S. Arbab
  Background and Objective: Antiangiogenic agents caused paradoxical increase in pro-growth and pro-angiogenic factors and caused tumor growth in glioblastoma (GBM). It is hypothesized that paradoxical increase in pro-angiogenic factors would mobilize Bone Marrow Derived Cells (BMDCs) to the treated tumor and cause refractory tumor growth. The purposes of the studies were to determine whether whole body irradiation (WBIR) or a CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100) will potentiate the effect of vatalanib (a VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and prevent the refractory growth of GBM. Methodology: Human GBM were grown orthotopically in three groups of rats (control, pretreated with WBIR and AMD3100) and randomly selected for vehicle or vatalanib treatments for 2 weeks. Then all animals underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) followed by euthanasia and histochemical analysis. Results: Tumor volume and different vascular parameters (plasma volume (vp), forward transfer constant (Ktrans), back flow constant (kep), extravascular extracellular space volume (ve) were determined from MRI. In control group, vatalanib treatment increased the tumor growth significantly compared to that of vehicle treatment but by preventing the mobilization of BMDCs and interaction of CXCR4-SDF-1 using WBIR and ADM3100, respectively, paradoxical growth of tumor was controlled. Pretreatment with WBIR or AMD3100 also decreased tumor cell migration, despite the fact that ADM3100 increased the accumulation of M1 and M2 macrophages in the tumors. Vatalanib also increased Ktrans and ve in control animals but both of the vascular parameters were decreased when the animals were pretreated with WBIR and AMD3100. Conclusion: In conclusion, depleting bone marrow cells or CXCR4 interaction can potentiate the effect of vatalanib.
  A. Arshad , S.M. Nurul Amin , Y.L.Z. Nuradiella , Z.C. Cob , R. Ara and D. Aziz
  The study was an attempt to examine the size frequency distribution, length-weight relationship and morphometric variation of the Acetes japonicus from four different sides of Kedah coastal waters between March to May 2007 by using SPSS and PRIMER software. The average total length of the females from Batu Lintang and male of Tg. Dawai were the highest with the values of 17.07 and 13.93 mm, respectively. The growth co-efficient (b) values ranged between 2.0 to 4.0, indicating varieties of the growth pattern (negative allometric, isometric and positive allometric) for A. japonicus. The highest correlation of length-length relationship in female and male were found in the population of Kuala Sala. The morphological characteristics showed variation among populations. The highest similarity of morphometric characteristics was between Batu Lintang and Tg. Dawai for all groups (female, male, combined sexes).
  R. Ara , A. Arshad , L. Musa , S.M.N. Amin and P. Kuppan
  Studies on feeding habits and seasonal variation of diet of fish larvae of family Clupeidae was conducted from October 2007 to September 2008 in the estuary of Sg. Pendas, Gelang Patah, Johor, Malaysia. The diet composition were grouped into seven major categories consisted of phytoplankton, zooplankton, plant-like matter, debris, fragment of copepod, algae and unidentified food items. The most predominant food items in the gut of clupeids was phytoplankton (82.53%), followed by plant-like matter (7.34%), debris (4.86%), fragment of copepods (2.69%), algae (0.92%), unidentified items (0.77%) and zooplankton (0.54%).
  R. Ara , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin , S.K. Daud and A.G. Mazlan
  Temporal variation of fish larval density and composition between seagrass and outside seagrass beds of the southwestern Johor, Malaysia were investigated between October 2007 and September 2008. Fish larvae were sampled monthly by using a bongo net with 500 μm mesh size and 30 min sub-surface tow. In situ environmental variables were also recorded during the sampling works. The fish larval assemblage comprised of 20 families from the seagrass beds and 16 families recorded from the outside seagrass beds station. In total, 3738 larvae (2,801 from seagrass and 937 from non-seagrass area) were collected. Total larva density was at 79 individuals per 100 m3 and 34 individuals per 100 m3 for seagrass beds and outside seagrass station respectively. Larval abundance varied significantly within monsoon and inter-monsoon seasons, with peaks in February-March and May-July. Top five families were Blenniidae, Clupeidae, Gobiidae, Sillaginidae and Terapontidae and they occurred consistently throughout the year. Larvae belonging to family Clupeidae (47.94% in seagrass and 42.03% in outside seagrass) and Terapontidae (17% in seagrass and 24% in outside seagrass) were the most abundant family in the study areas. The highest density of total larval fishes was recorded at the seagrass ecosystem. The spatial variations in larval density were not significantly (p>0.05) different between the seagrass beds and open sea station.
  F.N. Khan , M.S. Mollah , R. Ara , M.M.U. Amin and P.C. Golder
  Effects of seven different corm lifting dates viz. 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after flowering (DAF) were investigated to determine the optimum time of corm lifting in gladiolus. Different treatments had no significant effect on the number of corms and cormels per plant but individual corm weight, diameter of corm and weight of cormels per plant were significantly influenced by different treatments. These parameters were found to increase with increase in lifting dates except the treatment 120 DAF in case of weight of cormels per plant. When the corms were stored at normal room temperature, different treatments showed insignificant variation in the incidence of corm rot disease. Corms lifted at 30 DAF though showed higher percentage of weight loss and less reduction in diameter during storage, it did not differ significantly with other treatments in the productivity of gladiolus when planted in the following year.
  M.F. Rahman , K.C.A. Jalal , Nasrin Jahan , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , R. Ara and A. Arshad
  Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from selection of floodplains, formation of floodplain management committee, planning of fish culture activities, exercise of technical intervention, selective stocking with large fingerlings, guarding, monitoring and supervision, adopting harvesting strategies, marketing and distribution of benefits are extremely essential to ensure sustainability of the program. Mutual trust, sense of respect and good working relationship among the committee members are the basic social elements required for the success of community based fish culture initiatives.
  K.C.A. Jalal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Arshad , R. Ara and M.F. Rahman
  A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H’) was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30°C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm-1), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L-1), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L-1), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 μg L-1), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L-1), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L-1), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L-1). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the presence of several outskirts could be alarming for the sustainable development of fish and other aquatic organisms in Kuantan estuary in the long run.
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