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Articles by R. W. Taylor
Total Records ( 2 ) for R. W. Taylor
  E. A. B. Francisco , S. H. Chien , L. I. Prochnow , E. R. Austin , M. C. M. Toledo and R. W. Taylor
  Little information is available on the agronomic effectiveness of calcined nonapatite phosphate rock (PR) sources containing crandallite minerals in the form of Ca–Fe–Al–P for flooded and upland rice (Oryza sativa L.). We conducted laboratory and greenhouse studies to (i) characterize the mineralogical composition, (ii) investigate the solubility and dissolution behavior, and (iii) evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of two nonapatite PR sources (Juquia and Sapucaia) from Brazil and compared them with (i) a highly reactive Gafsa PR (Tunisia) containing apatite in the form of Ca–P and (ii) a reference water-soluble triple superphosphate (TSP) for flooded and upland rice. After calcination at 500°C for 4 h, the solubility of Juquia PR and Sapucaia PR in neutral ammonium citrate (NAC) significantly increased from almost nil to a maximum of 39.3 and 114 g P kg–1, respectively. X-ray diffraction showed that crystalline crandallite mineral was transformed to an amophorus form after calcination. The solubility behavior of the two calcined PR sources followed the same trend as Gafsa PR, that is, P release decreased with increasing equilibrium pH in the 0.01 M KCl solution (pH 3.0–8.0). At pH 3, the solubility followed: Gafsa PR > calcined Sapucaia PR > calcined Juquia PR. No P release was detected from any of the PR sources at pH >= 5.0 in the solution, indicating the Ca–P characteristic of the Ca–Fe–Al–P mineral controlled P dissolution of the calcined PR. Without calcination, both Juquia PR and Sapucaia PR were totally ineffective for upland rice grown on a Hiwassee clay loam (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Rhodic Kanhapludult) with pH 5.4 whereas a significant P response was observed with the calcined PR samples. For flooded rice grown on Hiwassee soil, the calcined Juquia PR and Sapucaia PR were 66 and 72%, respectively, as effective as TSP in increasing rice grain yield whereas Gafsa PR was ineffective. For upland rice grown on the unlimed soil, Gafsa PR was as effective as TSP in increasing rice grain yield whereas calcined Juquia PR and Sapucaia PR were 89 and 83% of TSP. The effectiveness of Gafsa PR was reduced to 0% after the soil was limed to pH 7.0 whereas the two calcined PR sources were reduced to 49% of TSP. Soil available P extracted by iron oxide impregnated filter paper (Pi test) or anion-exchange resin after rice harvest correlated well with P uptake by rice grain for flooded and upland rice.
  H. A. L Tuppen , V. E Hogan , L He , E. L Blakely , L Worgan , M Al Dosary , G Saretzki , C. L Alston , A. A Morris , M Clarke , S Jones , A. M Devlin , S Mansour , Z. M. A Chrzanowska Lightowlers , D. R Thorburn , R McFarland and R. W. Taylor
 

Isolated complex I deficiency is the most frequently observed oxidative phosphorylation defect in children with mitochondrial disease, leading to a diverse range of clinical presentations, including Leigh syndrome. For most patients the genetic cause of the biochemical defect remains unknown due to incomplete understanding of the complex I assembly process. Nonetheless, a plethora of pathogenic mutations have been described to date in the seven mitochondrial-encoded subunits of complex I as well as in 12 of the nuclear-encoded subunits and in six assembly factors. Whilst several mitochondrial DNA mutations are recurrent, the majority of these mutations are reported in single families. We have sequenced core structural and functional nuclear-encoded subunits of complex I in a cohort of 34 paediatric patients with isolated complex I deficiency, identifying pathogenic mutations in 6 patients. These included a novel homozygous NDUFS1 mutation in an Asian child with Leigh syndrome, a previously identified NDUFS8 mutation (c.236C>T, p.P79L) in a second Asian child with Leigh-like syndrome and six novel, compound heterozygous NDUFS2 mutations in four white Caucasian patients with Leigh or Leigh-like syndrome. Three of these children harboured an identical NDUFS2 mutation (c.875T>C, p.M292T), which was also identified in conjunction with a novel NDUFS2 splice site mutation (c.866+4A>G) in a fourth Caucasian child who presented to a different diagnostic centre, with microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism analyses indicating that this was due to an ancient common founder event. Our results confirm that NDUFS2 is a mutational hotspot in Caucasian children with isolated complex I deficiency and recommend the routine diagnostic investigation of this gene in patients with Leigh or Leigh-like phenotypes.

 
 
 
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