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Articles by R. W. Schrier
Total Records ( 4 ) for R. W. Schrier
  S Bansal , J Lindenfeld and R. W. Schrier

Patients with cirrhosis and heart failure (HF) share the pathophysiology of decreased effective arterial blood volume because of splanchnic vasodilatation in cirrhosis and decreased cardiac output in HF, with resultant stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Hyperaldosteronism plays a major role in the pathogenesis of ascites and contributes to resistance to loop diuretics. Therefore, the use of high doses of aldosterone antagonist (spironolactone up to 400 mg/day) is the main therapy to produce a negative sodium balance in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Hyperaldosteronism also has increasingly been recognized as a risk factor for myocardial and vascular fibrosis. Therefore, low-dose aldosterone antagonists are being used in patients with HF for cardioprotective action. However, the doses (25 to 50 mg/day) at which they are being used in cardiac patients as reported in the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study are not natriuretic. It is likely, therefore, that the mortality benefit relates primarily from their effect on cardiac and vascular fibrosis. Resistance to commonly used loop diuretics is frequently present in patients with advanced HF. In patients with decompensated HF with volume overload who are loop diuretic resistant, ultrafiltration may be the only available option. This is, however, an invasive procedure. For these patients, natriuretic doses of aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone >50 mg/day) may be a potential option. The competitive natriuretic response of aldosterone antagonists is related to activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: the higher the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, the higher the dose of aldosterone antagonist required to produce natriuresis. This article will discuss the potential use of natriuretic doses of aldosterone antagonists in patients with HF, including the potential side effect of hyperkalemia.

  M Sarraf , A Masoumi and R. W. Schrier

Renal dysfunction is highly prevalent in patients with heart failure. Furthermore, worsening renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), the so-called cardiorenal syndrome, impacts short and long-term morbidity and mortality. In recent years, more evidence has surfaced from clinical trials and heart failure registries that a complex cross-talk between the kidney and heart in patients with ADHF exists. Meanwhile, management of patients presenting with ADHF and concomitant renal dysfunction continues to be challenging. Therefore, understanding the interaction of the heart and kidneys is pivotal in tailoring therapy of these patients. We have extensively reviewed the pathophysiology of ADHF, the role of neurohoromones as well as other biomarkers and predictors of mortality in these patients based on the current evidence. Moreover, we have discussed the current and future pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies for treatment of this deadly disease. The strength of the evidence is limited, however, due to a paucity of randomized controlled trials in this patient population. What is evident from current national statistics; however, are the poor results in treating the congestion of ADHF. In this regard, the role of secondary hyperaldosteronism is discussed in the diuretic section as well as diuretic resistance in ADHF. In conclusion, since renal function is the single most important prognostic factor in the outcome of patients with ADHF, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the cardiorenal syndrome is needed to target therapy and ultimately improve the mortality of patients with ADHF.

  A. B Chapman , V. E Torres , R. D Perrone , T. I Steinman , K. T Bae , J. P Miller , D. C Miskulin , F. R Oskoui , A Masoumi , M. C Hogan , F. T Winklhofer , W Braun , P. A Thompson , C. M Meyers , C Kelleher and R. W. Schrier

Background and objectives: Two HALT PKD trials will investigate interventions that potentially slow kidney disease progression in hypertensive autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. Studies were designed in early and later stages of ADPKD to assess the impact of intensive blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and level of BP control on progressive renal disease.

Design, settings, participants, and measurements: PKD-HALT trials are multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials studying 1018 hypertensive ADPKD patients enrolled over 3 yr with 4 to 8 yr of follow-up. In study A, 548 participants, estimated GFR (eGFR) of >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were randomized to one of four arms in a 2-by-2 design: combination angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy versus ACEi monotherapy at two levels of BP control. In study B, 470 participants, eGFR of 25 to 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 compared ACEi/ARB therapy versus ACEi monotherapy, with BP control of 120 to 130/70 to 80 mmHg. Primary outcomes of studies A and B are MR-based percent change kidney volume and a composite endpoint of time to 50% reduction of baseline estimated eGFR, ESRD, or death, respectively.

Results: This report describes design issues related to (1) novel endpoints such as kidney volume, (2) home versus office BP measures, and (3) the impact of RAAS inhibition on kidney and patient outcomes, safety, and quality of life.

Conclusions: HALT PKD will evaluate potential benefits of rigorous BP control and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on kidney disease progression in ADPKD.

  R. W. Schrier

Physiologic end points for fluid resuscitation in septic shock patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) have been undertaken in randomized studies using the Early Goal-Directed Therapy (EGDT) approach. These studies have demonstrated a beneficial effect on in-hospital mortality with EGDT. The Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation (SAFE) randomized study in critically ill patients demonstrated no difference in survival when saline versus albumin solutions were used for resuscitation. However, a benefit of albumin has been demonstrated in a randomized study on renal function and survival in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial periotonitis. On the other hand, recent observational studies have shown a correlation between fluid overload and mortality in AKI patients whether or not they necessitated dialysis. Moreover, the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) network performed a randomized study in critically ill patients to compare liberal versus conservative fluid administration. The liberal fluid administration group exhibited worse pulmonary function and no protection of renal function. Constancy of central venous pressure (CVP) measurements in the 12-mmHg range were observed in the liberal fluid group despite a mean increase in positive fluid balance of 7 L, thus suggesting increased interstitial fluid accumulation leading to pulmonary congestion. The review presented here discusses these various aspects of fluid administration in critically ill patients, particularly those with AKI, and indicates the potential deleterious effects of fluid overload on lung, heart, and kidney function that could contribute to increased mortality.

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